Government of Tamil nadu
VIII - STANDARD
ent of School Ed
A Publication Under
Government of Tamilnadu
Distribution of Free Textbook Programme
(NOT FOR SALE)
© Government of Tamilnadu
First Edition -2011
(Published under Uniform System of School Education Scheme)
Text Book Team:
Mrs.P. Mary Malliga, St. Joseph A.I. Hr.Sec. School, Vepery, Chennai.
Mr.S. Moorthy, P.G. Asst., Govt. Girls Hr.Sec. School, Valavanoor, Villupuram District.
Mrs. Sharmila Leena Martin, B.T. Asst., Holy Angels A. I. H.Sec. School, Chennai.
Mr.S. Muthuraman, B.T. Asst., Nadar Hr.Sec. School, Varthirayierupu, Virudhunagar District.
Mr. Sivaraj, B.T. Asst., Government Hr.Sec. School, Thandalaiputhur, Trichy District.
Mrs. Walieeda Nazer, ICF Silver Jubilee Hr.Sec. School, ICF.
Dr. David Jeyabalan, Associate Professor, Loyola College, Chennai.
Mr. Moses Samuvei Chellaiali, Principal, St. Pauls TTI. Periyar Nagar, Chennai.
Dr.Beula Jayaseeli, Principal, BishopAppasamy College of Education, Avinashi Road, Coimbatore.
Tmt. Sumitra M. Gautama, Co-ordinator, Outreach The School (K.F.I.) Chennai.
Laser Typ&set d Layout : M. Vijayosarathy, T. Raghti, R. Anandhan
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THE NATIONAL ANTHEM
g6OT ffieiror wm ^^rBmuffi giu (Sara
umj^ urrffiiu nSl^rr^ir
Ui^ffnu 6r51iB§j ogijrr^ inijrrLLn"
fii^jB^iLi 6irfilLDn'd'6u uj(Lp5tn'n' aiijsT
^6iJ dru rBrT<oLJi grrCoa
^6ij ffiu ^rfleru iJ)rr(Sffi
g69r sfiovr LDiijafiTr ^rriLia guj Gain
umj^ urrauj flSl^rr^rr
^lu Cd6ud ^lu (o6ia] ^lu (osm]
giij ffliu guj giu (SeMT) !
Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he
Tava subha name jage,
Tava Subha asisa mage,
Gahe tava jaya-gatha.
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,
Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he.
- Rabindranath Tagore.
Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he
Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he.
AUTHENTIC ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF
THE NATIONAL ANTHEM
Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
Thou dispenser of India's destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of the Punjab, Sind,
Gujarat and Maratha, of Dravid, Orissa and Bengal.
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
mingles in the music of the Yamuna and Ganges
and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
They pray for Thy blessings and sing Thy praise
The saving of all people waits in Thy hand.
Thou dispenser of India's destiny.
Victory, Victory, Victory to Thee.
i£p'(r3rAj ai_gu(bl^^ r£l6ULj)i_iB6iD^4 C1aL^Q6urr(Lg(^Li]
Q^3i6)&m([pui ^^rb^rDjB^ ^irrrnSli-rBGb ^(T^rBrrCbliJi
^^a#1p LJ)6iDrD^^gULJi arflffiffin^im ^6ua&(y](DLi]
CT^^6iDd=LL|Li) L|d5L^Lii6inn-^a gl(r3iB^Qu(r3iB ^LflLpeimrr^Coffi !
Cld=iu6ULi)piB§j surrijiai gigi GLJ)! eurrLfffi gigi Sm ! eurrijiai gigi CpU] !
- '^(oflnTreiTLiifiSHfujLi' Qu.&i^^ifssiKJr.
INVOCATION TO GODDESS TAMIL
Bharat is like the face beauteous of Earth clad in wavy seas;
Deccan is her brow crescent-like on which the fragrant Tilak' is the
blessed Dravidian land.
Like the fragrance of that Tilak' plunging the world in joy supreme reigns
Goddess Tamil with renown spread far and wide.
Praise unto 'You, Goddess Tamil, whose majestic youthfulness, inspires
awe and ecstasy.'
THE NATIONAL INTEGRATION PLEDGE
"I solemnly pledge to work with dedication to preserve and strengthen the freedom and
integrity of the nation."
"I further affirm that I shall never resort to violence and that all differences and disputes
relating to religion, language, region or other political or economic grievances should be
settled by peaceful and constitutional means."
A STUDENT'S VOW BEFORE MOTHER INDIA
Class : School :
I shall overcome the obstacles raised by caste and communal prejudices and work
for the greatness of my Motherland putting to the fullest use the benefits that I derive through
THE WOODEN BOWL
MY GRANDMOTHER'S HOUSE
A MOTHER'S DAY GIFT
THE POWER OF lj\UGHTER
YOU CANT BE THAT, NO, YOU CAN'T BE THAT 44 |
A WOMAN OF COURAGE
NO MEN ARE FOREIGN
SORRY BEST FRIEND
TO INDIA - MY NATIVE LAND
AFTER THE STORM
OUR WINGED FRIENDS
THE ANTEATERANDTHE DASSIE
THE UNFORGETTABLE JOHNNY
NINE GOLD MEDALS
GOD, THIS IS CHARLES
WHAT IS YOUR ADDRESS?
NOTE TO THE TEACHER
In Unit-I, an attempt has been made to open the minds of the children to
understand and respect the feelings of grandparents at home and appreciate and
reciprocate their love. This seems to be decreasing these days, for a variety of
reasons! The Wooden Bowl, which is an adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's wonderful story
of the same name, is an eye opener to all. It is suggested that the introduction could
be an interactive session, inviting students to share their experiences.
This lesson, being the first one, is quite simple, yet opens a framework for the
active learning of language. The activities given help the child to read, to relate with
the content, to understand, to recall, to assess and interact in small and large groups.
In grammar, the tenses learnt in class VII are reinforced through interactive
The second part begins with a nostalgic poem by Kamala Surayya, called 'My
Grandmother's House'. Her layered thoughts on a loving grandmother, who is no
more, could be used to kindle children to ponder over life's purpose, and the universal
need to be loved. The teacher can encourage the students to write poems on their
grandparents and other people who are significant in their lives.
The story for supplementary reading, 'A Mothers' Day Gift', is based on a real
life incident depicting the courage and selfless love of a mother, which helps her
daughter to learn an important lesson in life.
May our society cherish and value senior citizens, and may their happiness be
a blessing to all of us.
THE WOODEN BOWL
Adapted from Leo Tolstoy's The Wooden Bowl'
Old people often feel insecure, as their health starts failing and are left
alone, when their need for care and rest increases. What can the young do, to
make the elderly people in their families feel more cared for?
Anbu loved his parents very much. An only child, he was used to being the
centre of attention at home. But this had not spoilt him. His father would always
say,"Let us never forget our beginnings." ForAnbu'sfather Saravanan was afanmer's
son. His parents lived in Karamadai, not far away from Coimbatore. Anbu and his
parents would often go to visit his grandparents. He and his cousins loved to play in
the fields and orchards that surrounded his grandparents' home. In the distance, one
could seethe blue hills, sometimes surrounded by fleecy white clouds.
Anbu loved the countryside. His firiends at school would
sometimes laugh at him. They would say, "This isthe twenty-fi rst century, Anbu -don't
live in the past." But he would only smile in answer. Anbu also loved his grandparents
very much. He used to listen to stories that his grandmother narrated to him and his
cousins. His grandmother was a great story
tellerl Anbu shared a silent bond with his
grandfather. The old man loved the land that he
tilled. While his cousins were busy eating raw
mangoes or guavas,
Anbu would sit under a
tree with his grandfather,
looking at the goats and cows that were grazing nearby.
Where do your
Sometimes, Anbu would pick up some mud, and iet it slip through his hands.
IHis grandfather would say, "That mud is more vaiuabie than goid!" Thus, there grew a
bond between them, one that was buiit around the air and the grass and the green
fieids and the hiiisfaraway-a bond that seemed permanent as the earth.
All this was perhaps too good to last - Anbu's grandmother passed away.
Anbu's father Saravanan spoke to h is brother and sister about his grieving father.
"I am prepared to look after him," he said. ''Maybe it is time that we disposed
of the land."
disposed of -sold
Anbu was very unhappy when he heard about this. 'Why are we selling the
land, Appa?" he asked. "Grandpa loves the land. You have told me so many times that
we should not forget our beginnings. It is through working ^
on the land that he supported all three of you. Why do you
want to break his heart?"
IHis father looked down sadly at Anbu. "That way of
life is no more, Anbu!" he said. "Grandpa is old and cannot
live by himself. Just think, he will be coming to live with us!"
And that was how grandfather came to live with Anbu's parents. Through the
difficult months following grandma's death, the only bond that kept the old man
attached to life was his relationship with his grandson. Though they lived in a flat in
Gandhipuram, the heart of the city, Anbu's mother had many pots in the small balcony,
where she grew a few herbs and flowers. Anbu's grandfather would sit there for hours,
staring sorrowfully at the sky. Anbu would come back from
school in the evenings and sit with his grandfather. He
could feel his grandpa's loneliness, but felt helpless.
Do you have any
questions that don't
have easy answers?
IHe did not know what he could do about it.
There were many questions in Anbu's mind. Why did he have to live in the city?
Why did Appa have to woric in a big company? Sometimes he would ask his
grandfather. The old man would answer, 'Life moves on... maybe some day you will
go back to the land that gives you life and food."
Anbu's mother loved her husband
and her young son. But she did not
understand the loneliness of her
father-in-law. It had been different
when she had gone to Karamadai.
TherSi she had seen a very
different side of her husband's
father. He was strong and capable
and she had felt happy. Here, he
seemed to have shrunk in size, he
was weak and helpless, and stayed at home. She was not used to talking to him, and
found very little to share. Sometimes she was very impatient with him, especially the
days when his hands trembled, and hedropped what hewas holding in his hands.
One morning at breakfast, grandfather's old hands shook so much that his
coffee spilled on the clean white table clothi and the glass slipped and broke into
many pieces. Anbu's mother spoke harshly to grandfather. Observing this, and
unable to eat any more breakfast. An bu got up and went away. After that, grandfather
had to eat all his meals alone in the kitchen. Anbu kept quiet about this new
an^ngement. So did Anbu's father. Anbu was scared that if he confronted his mother,
she would ask him, "Are you ready to stay at home and clean the mess every day?"
Now, grand^ther began telling Anbu stories in the evenings. His stories were
different from grandma's stories. They were about birds and grain and ants and goats
and all the things that he had loved and observed so keenly when he was fanning.
Anbu was so happy! The littleverandah where they sat became a wonderland, where
there was no pain, and they could roam happily, hand-ln-hand. In an Imaginary
As he grew older, Grandpa's hands shook more and more. One night his hand
trembledi and he dropped his bowl of porridge. The pomdge spilled all over the
kitchen floor and the bowl broke into many pieces.
imaginary: not real
Anbu's father and mother, closely followed by the child, hastened to the
kitchen. "Oh, Nof My beautiful cerannic bowl!" wailed his mother.
<:eramlc: baked and
availed: cried loudly
torrent: strong flow
She burst Into a tenant of words. She said that she had decided to give the old
man food in a wooden bowl. Anbu was very upset, not only
by the anger on his mother's face, but also by the look of
fear on his grandfather's face. His grandpa was scared!
Anbu's father left the room. Anbu watched silently, as she
cleaned up the floor, mumnurlng and mumbling all
Suddenly Anbu took a small piece of wood
fifom the side of the shelf and began to whittle it,
keeping his eyes on the broken bowl as though it
were a model. His parents, curious to see what he
was doing, went over to him.
"What are you doing Anbu?" asked him
Tm making a wooden bowl, for you to have, when you grow old," answered
Anbu's mother and father were too ashamed to meet Anbu's eyes. For a
minute, perhaps, they had a glimpse of what their own future might be like.
Then his mother took grandfather's arms and led him back to the dining table
and helped him while he was eating.
Anbu was happy again. As he watched
his parents, Anbu realized that they too were
experiencing a new and wonderful happiness.
whittle: shape wood with a knife
glimpse: a look
LET US REMEMBER:
1. What would Anbu's father tell him?
2. What was the special bond that Anbu and his grandfather shared?
3. After his grandnnother died, what did the family decide to do?
4. What made Anbu's grandfather unhappy in Coimbatore?
5. How did his grandfather's weakness affect Anbu's mother?
6. Why did Anbu's mother say that his grandfather would be fed in a wooden bowl?
7. Why did Anbu start making a wooden bowl?
Pick out the words and phrases that describe the thoughts and feelings of
Anbu's grandfather. Write them in whichever way you like in the box given below:
What kind of a person is Anbu? Match the following columns, and find outi
Wiat the narrative says
What I understand about Anbu
Attention did not spoil him.
Anbu knew and valued his grandfattier's love of
His friends wouid taii him not to iive in Vf\e\
past - he wouid Iceep siient. \
Anbu was happy that his grandfather loved and
With his grandfather, Anbu shared a silent
Anbu was not egoistic
Anbu was unhappy about ttie decision to
seli the land.
Anbu was scared about what his mother would
ask him to do
Anbu would come back after school, and sit
with his grandfather.
Anbu knew that his friends might not
understand his love for the countryside
There were many questions in his mind...
Anbu taught his parents a lesson without words
Anbu got up and went away, when his
mother scolded his grandfather.
Anbu understood that his parents were also
learning about life.
Anbu was very happy when his grandpa
told him stories
Anbu and his grandfather shared a deep and
Anbu toolc a piece of wood and started
Anbu was confused and helpless about his
Anbu realized that his parents too were
experiencing a new and wonderful
Anbu showed his love for his grandfather by
spending time witii him.
LET US UNDERSTAND: Discuss in groups and present a report.
How can I support the old people in my life?
What do i understand fr^m the story?
Do you share a bond with anyonOp like Anbu's with his
Are Old Age
for ail people In
Savithri Vaithi, who runs Vishranthi Home For the Aged,
has this to say - "Most definiteiy, no institution can replace the
family! The love and care that one receives from a family is
irrepiaceabie. Why should someone pay money for love and care?
The system that has long been upheld and glorified is the family system. India
for sure is getting developed in every way but along with it we will have to accept the
disintegration of the institution of family."
LET US REVISE:
Syllables help you to spell and pronounce words correctly. Words are made up
of syllables. Sonne words such as I, come, eat, fish, see, have only one syllable
i.e; only one vowel sound.
The underlined letters have one vowel sound.
The word 'eat' has two vowel letters but when pronounced it has only one
vowel sound like 'ee' in Tamil. The words like 'ago and above' have two vowel sounds.
A vowel sound can be stretched for a longer period than consonant sounds.
Try saying 'a, e, I, o, u' and try saying 'p, k, t'. and note the difference.
Asyllable must have a vowel sound.
Pick out words from this story that are:
One syllable long:
Two syllables long :
Three syllables long :
Four and more syllables long :
1 . Karamadai
LET US REVISE:
Rean'ange the given prefix, base and suffix to fonn a word that matches the
Prefix Base Suffix
employ ed un
having no work
un employ ed
ibie in vis
not able to be seen
ment agree dis
appear dis ing
going out of sight
mark able re
out of the ordinary
arm dis ed
having no weapons
understand mis ing
joint dis ed
not connected well
LET US REVISE AND LEARN :
See how 'e', the last letter, which is usually silent, is dropped before taking on the
suffix '-ing' or 'tion'. Use the rule and fill in the blanks.
A. Add a prefix or suffix to the root words given below, and write them under the prefix
or suffix. One has been done for you in each group,
i) un in im ness ful unable
ii) able, decent, perfect, kind, wonder,
happy, correct, patient, good, hope
tele tion un in im
1 . violence
2. finite 3. possible 4. vision
able non 11
Vicky: How did your
English test go?
John: Okay. But I
forgot the past tense
of think'. I thought
and I thought and
then wrote thinked I
LET US REVISE:
Let us first revise what a verb is. A verb describes a state of
being or an action.
a) Read this nursery jingle and underline the state of being verbs.
'Roses are red,
Violets are blue, Sugar is sweet, And so are you'.
b) Pick out the verbs in the following sentences. Say whether they are action
verbs or state verbs.
i) Pride goes before a fall,
ii) As you sow, so you reap,
ill) Time and tide wait for nobody,
iv) She is tired of writing.
Verbs change their fomns according to the time of occurrence. Fill in the table with
the right form of the verbs given in brackets:
Simple Present Tense
Simple Past Tense
(rise) In the east.
Yesterday 1 (go) to the beach.
He usually _
(wear) a white
India (become) independent
1 (visit) Delhi a month
25* Dec. every year.
(shine) at night.
Akbar (ruie) India well.
Pair Work: Make meaningful sentences from the following tables:
Present Continuous Tense ['be' verb + ing]
Past Continuous Tense ['be' verb + ing]
when the lights went out.
a cat came in
Future Continuous Tense [shall / will + be + ing]
shall * be
wNI + be
LET US LEARN: (Individual / Pair Work)
A. Abirami has drawn a picture.
Monica has finished reading.
He has read five books so far.
The underlined verbs show actions just completed.
These verbs are in the Present Perfect Tense.
The format of the Present Perfect Tense is (has / have + verb)
USES OF THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE :
1 . We use the Present Perfect tense to talk about an action in the past without
stating the exact time of the action.
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
We visited the Science
We ftave visited the Science Museum
The bird in the cage ffewaway
1 iast weefr.
The bird in the cage lias flown away.
2. We use the Present Perfect tense to talk about an action that started in the past
and is still going on.
I have taught in this school for three years.
3. We form the Present Perfect tense in this way:
has / have + past participle of verb
have + completed : The engineers have completed the project,
has + taken : Lily has taken her son to the clinic.
Tick the correct sentences.
^ Dad polished his shoes yesterday.
^ Subhash has cut the vegetables just now.
^ The ripe fruit has fallen from the tree.
^ The spectators have throw rubbish all over the field last night.
^ The police have catch the motorcyclist for speeding.
Correct the wrong sentences.
4. The Present Perfect tense is used to describe an action which has
been completed, finished or done just now or a little while ago but near the Present
It is a kind of link between the Past and the Present.
'Has + done' give a sense of 'Present + Past'.
I have finished the work just now.
He has posted the letter today.
5. The Present Perfect tense is used to indicate that the action has taken place
sometime in the Past (it may be long back), but the action so completed in the
Past has its effect In the Present Time.
The meeting has not started yet. (....as I find it at present.)
He has not returned my pen. (. . . And at present i feel bad about it!)
Ajay has eaten all the biscuits. (Therefore, nothing is left to give you.)
THE PAST PERFECT TENSE:
1 . When we refer to completed actions in the past, we can
use different Pasttense forms to indicate what we mean.
Examples: Simple Past Tense
They came immediately
When we entered the hall,
Simple Past Tense
when we called them,
the lecture began.
(We were just in time.)
We use the Past Perfect Tense for an action or situation that happened earlier
and the Simple PastTense for the action or situation that happened later.
Past Perfect Tense
The bell had rung
The rain had stopped
when Rajesh entered the school
when the Minister arrived.
We use the Past Perfect Tense with words like already and just to refer to actions
which were completed before a specific time in the past.
Examples: Dad had already confirmed ourtickets before we leftforthe station.
Dad had just finished his dinner when the phone rang.
Your example: ^
3. We use the Past Perfect tense with indefinite time words and phrases like always
and more than once to refer to repeated actions in the past.
I had always suspected that Brian was to blame for the accident.
Before I left the workshop, the mechanic had reminded me more than once to
check the tyres.
Cross out the incorrect verb forms to complete the sentences.
1 . They have emphasized/had emphasized the importance of the course to
all those present before they introduced the speakers.
2. We passed/had passed through the entrance of the monastery when we heard
the ringing of bells.
3. Tom and Abbas always disagreed/had always disagreed about this issue,
and so I wasn't surprised when Tom spoke this time.
4. Ami and I hadn't done/haven't done our project, and so we didn't submit it.
5. The two children have fallen /had fallen ill after the trip and were taken to the
clinic for treatment.
THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE:
The Future Perfect Tense is used to refer to completion of an activity at a definite
point in future.
Future Perfect Tense: [sliall /will + have + past participle]
i) They will have reached Delhi next Tuesday,
ii) I shall have completed the project by the end of August,
iii) Zeenath will have written the examination by this time tomorrow.
Now use the lines and complete the following sentences using the Future Perfect
Tense of the verbs given in brackets :
i) by September the foundation (lay).
ii) by December the walls (raise).
iii) by Pongal the windows and doors (put) up.
iv) the ROC roofing (finish) by February.
v) we will have land the foundation by September
ACTIVITY: Use the Present, Past and Future Perfect Tenses of the verbs in brackets.
i) My friend (write) many novels so far.
ii) The committee (settle) the problem by next January.
iii) When motherwent into the kitchen the cat (drink) the milk.
iv)Sachin (occupy) the first place in the Indian cricket world.
v) By August, my brother Uoin) college.
LET US EXPAND:
Here is a small story outline for you to develop, using the right tense form of the
verbs given in brackets:-
Ashok saw a young girl-20 years ago in Erode- looked tired and hungry- on her
way back from school-fsearch) his pockets-(find) a biscuit-(give) it to her-(walk) a
little distance-(stand) watching- a skinny dog (come) by- the girl (break) the biscuit
into two- (give) one half to the dog- (be) He- (move) by the largeness of her heart.
Try to imagine this incident and add other details to this outline, to make it
Read a paragraph from the Prose Passage with clarity and correct
pronunciation and intonation.
SPEAKING -Pair work.
Take turns with your partner and read the dialogue.
Hello! This is Sundar. Can I speak to Sam?
Holdtheline, please. I'll call him. (after a few seconds)
Hi! Sundar, how are you?
Fine, thank you. Why haven't you been coming to the computer class?
Well. I had to help my grandma. She was suffering from 'chickungunya'.
I had to support her with my sister Sarojini.
Oh, really, that's good. You are so kind to your grandma.
I am not being kind. I do it because I love her.
True! But old people require additional love and care whenthey become
sick. Keep it up. Will you join us this week?
Sure, My grandmother is fine now. So I'll come to class.
MY GRANDMOTHER'S HOUSE
A grandma is always special. Wliat does your grandma mean, in your iife?
in tlie poem 'My Grandmother's i-iouse', Kamaia Surayya writes about tier
chiidhood in Kerala. She contrasts her present iife in which she begs for love "at
least in small change" [not wholly or completely] 'at stranger's doors' [from
people she doesn't know well] with her childhood in her grandmother's house,
where she experienced love in abundance, without ever having to ask for it. IHer
language is lively and imaginative.
There is a house now faraway where once
I received love... That woman diedi
The house withdrew Into si lencOi snakes moved
Among books I was then too young
To read, and my blood turned cold like the moon.
How often I think of going
There, to peer through blind eyes of windows or
J ust I isten to the frozen air,
Or in wild despalrj pick an armful of
Darkness to bring it here to lie
Behind my bed room door like a brooding
Dog... you cannot believe, darling,
Can you, that I lived in such a house and
Was proud, and loved... I who have lost
My way and beg now at stranger's doore to
Receive love, at least in small change.
now far away - Kamaia Das
lives in Mumbai which is quite
far from Kerala.
peer- look narrowly
despair -loss of hope
darkness - want of light
peer through blind eyes of
windows - darkness is all
that one can see through the
vi/indows of a closed house.
brooding -thinking over
LET US REMEMBER :
1 . Where did Kamala feel loved?
2. What happened to that place?
3. What does she often think of doing?
4. Why does Kannaia call the windows 'blind eyes'?
4. What does Kamala hope to hear from the 'frozen air' in her grandma's place?
5. What maizes Kamala experience 'wild despair'?
6. What maizes Kamala say, 'you cannot believe, can you?' to the person she
addresses in the poem?
7. What words does Kamala use to describe her feelings? What do they tell you?
8. What has happened to Kamala now?
Note 1 : In a city, even neighbours remain strangers, because of the busy lives
people lead. The total security and warmth that Kamala Surayya experienced in her
grandma's house, has gone from her life. The loneliness that she feels, drives her to
talk to people whom she does not know very well, for whatever warmth and comfort
she can get.
Do you feel lonely sometimes in class? What do you do when you feel that way?
Note 2: Kamala uses the 'metaphor' or image of ^A/ealth' to describe what she felt -
in her grandma's house, she was weaithy in love and safety. Now she feeis iil<e a poor
beggar- who has no affection in her life, and has to ask for it.
LET US UNDERSTAND:
Choose ttie cotrect answer to the Mlowing:
A. The house withdrew into silence
This line means that
a) the house was haunted
b) nobody lived there any more
c) Kamala couldn't receive love from her grandmother or interact with her
B. My blood turned cold like the moon
This line means that
a) she didntfeei warm and ioved, but desoiate like the moon
b) she became a vampire,
c) she leamt that the moon was coid
C. Listen to the frozen air
This phrase means that
a) the icy air speaks to her
b) she feels very weak and tired
c) life in that house froze into stillness when her grandma died.
D. Or in wild despair, pick an armful of
Daricness to bring It here to lie
Behind my bedroom door like a brooding dog...
These lines tell us that
a) the poet's dog was brooding behind the door.
b) the daricness in her grandma's place and made her feel secure, and she wants
some of it to be with her, like a loyal dog.
c) there was darkness behind her bed room door.
The main idea in the poem is that
a) we should not neglect grandmothers.
b) we should learn to appreciate our parents' love.
c) Kamala received deep affection from her grandmother,
and she misses it now.
Where and with whom have you felt safe and cared for? Write five lines about it.
A MOTHER'S DAY GIFT
Apsara had just shifted with her parents to a new
neighbourhood, and she was happy to have got admission to
Ciass Viii in the iocal school. On herfirst day of schooi, her father
accompanied her, and she nervously waited to meet the
Principai. Sudden iyi through the corner of her eye, she saw a girl
iaughing as she ran through the conridor. 'IHow I wish i could be
iil<e that girl,' she thought to herseif. 'She seems so happy!'
When she went Into the Principai's office Mrs.Rose, the Principai, greeted
them kindiyj and asiced, 'isn't Apsara's mother here?"
i-ierfathergave an evasive repiy, and they tail^ed of other
things. But Apsara feit sad. Why couidn't her mother be
iii<e other mothers? Mrs. Rose, asked another student,
Seivi, to come and take her to ciass.
Are there times when you
feei both happy and sad?
Mention one such time.
imagine Apsara*s surprise, when she found that it was the same
girl whom she had seen laughing as she rani Seivi soon became
her best friend. Both girls enjoyed learning and playing. They
participated happily in all the activities at school.
evasive : avoiding
twinge : sudden
movement or pain
It was a month after their Half-Yearly Examination that
the school announced that they were going to honour all
mothers and care-givers on School Day. "Please bring
along the people who love and care for you," said Mrs. Rose, at the Morning
Assembly. "A mother is anyone who loves you and looks after you." Apsara was both
happy and sad as she heard the news. She was unable to focus on any activity at
school, throughout the day.
Her friends asked her, 'What is wrong, Apsi?" but she
couldn't answer. iHow couid she teli them that she was ashamed
to bring her mother to schooi? iHer mind went down memory iane,
and she remembered the first time her mother had come to her
it was a bright moming in August. The school was pianningfora Culturai Show,
and aii parents of Ciass V had been calied for a Parent-Teacher meeting. Usualiy, her
father dropped and piclced her up, and attended aii the meetings. But he had gone
awayonworki and her mothersaid she would come that day. For the first time, Apsara
'iooi<ed' at her mother, and experienced her first twinge of doubt, i-ier classmates had
taiked so proudly of their mothers - one of them said her mother had participated in
teievision programmes, besides being a Manager in an office. Another student who
iived with his grandmother said that she was a 'super* grandma - she could do so
many things! Apsara's mother found itdifFicultto move fast, though she did aii the work
at home, since a fire accident had affected both her neck and her knee joints. Her
father had always said that she was beautifui, but Apsara
wondered if herciassmates wouid think so.
Have you ever
iaeen hurt by things
|3eopie didn't say?
And they didn't! Her
mother took a great deai of
trouble to dress we! I for the meeting. But when she
came to schooi, Apsara was shocked and hurt
beyond words by what she saw in the eyes of both
her teachers and her classmates. "What is wrong
with my mother? She is my mother, isn't she? Why do the teachers iook so pitying?"
she thought. She overheard one of her ciassmates telling another, "Did you see
Apsara's mother? She looks like a monster!" Things were never the same for Apsara
after that day. It wasnt only what people said. It was also what they didn't say. She
continued to study well, and played all games enthusiastically. But her classmates
had ceased to treat her as 'nomnar.
Thinking bacl< on that awful experience now,
Apsara decided to tell her mother to find an excuse
not to come to the tea party. She went home troubled.
When she reached home, her motherasked her,
'Why do you look so tired and unhappy today?"
Apsara told her what had been announced at the
"And you would prefer that I didn't come?" asked
Apsara broke down. "Well, since you ask, yes, I wouldl' she said, crying. "I
dont want anyone to say that you aren't beautiful! I don't want anyone to call you
a... a... monster!"
She put her head down on her mother's lap. Her mother gently stroked her hair,
and wiped her hot wet face with her 'duppatta'.
"But do you know, Apsara, I don't feel bad about my scars at alH"
"When you were just one year old, I was about to give you a bath. When
I switched on the water heater there was a sudden short circuit and the heater burst.
Before I could realize it, there was fire everywhere, and quickiy spreading. I called out
for your father, rushing through the fire. I threw you into your father's arms and
fainted. When i woke up, I was in the emergency ward and critically ill. After a great
struggle they were able to save my life, but not my neck and face". By now tears were
flowing down Apsara's cheeks. She ran and kissed her mothers face, and came
upon a new resolve. ''Ma, it doesn't matter what they think. I want the whole world to
see my mother," she vowed.
That's truly brave of you, my dear!" said her mother smiling.
On the day of the tea party, Apsara toolc her mother to Mrs.
Rose's room and proudly announced, This is my mother." And to her
great surprise and happiness, Mrs. Rose did not flinch at all I Neither
did the teachers! They all smiled and talked to her mother as if they
could actually see the person beneath the scars I The biggest surprise of all was when
Selvi wheeled her mother in. One or two of her classmates were helping her. "What
happened to your mother, Selvi?" asiced Apsara, before she could stop herself. "Oh,
she had an accident when she was driving her moped, and lost her legs," said Selvi.
''A rash motorist banged into her and there was a bus just behind. We were lucky that
the doctors could save her life." She smiled fondly at her mother.
flinch : shrink back
Apsara realized many things that day. Most importantly, she realized that
beauty lies in the heart, and in the mind. It lies in the way we face life's challenges, not
in the challenges themselves.
LET US REMEMBER:
1 . Which class was Apsara studying in?
2. What was her school planning to do?
3. What was she reminded of ?
4. What had happened, in her old school?
5. What did her mother share with Apsara?
6. What did Apsara discover, when she took her mother to meet IVIrs. Rose?
7. What did she find out, about Selvi's mother?
8. What did Apsara learn that day?
LET US UNDERSTAND:
Worl< in small groups and share
IVIany changes happen in Apsara's mind and heart. Fill in the lines in the story
that tell you what she feels. One has been done for you .
Lines from the story
longing [to be like Selvi]
'How 1 wish 1 could be like that girl,' she thought to
herself. 'She seems so happy!'
sad and happy
sad and troubled [now]
surprised and happy
LET US REVISE:
Write an Informal Letter
Mv dearest Patti/Aava/Grandma/Daadi/Naani,
Thank vou for vour letter. Appa/Amma is
are well. [Write about anyone else vou wantl
. All at home
. In school,
. 1 have
Do vou know,
1 will spend mv holidavs
1 am lookina fonrt^ard to
1 hope vou
1 remember the stories
. 1 also remember
. 1 am 1
looking forward to seeing vou
. Take 1
care of vourself, and don't forget to ! 1
Your loving grand_
1 am going to competition this
specially for me on that day!
NOTE TO THE TEACHER
In this unit an attempt has been made to enable children realize the role of
women in today's world. There are also deeper questions embedded in the text, The
Power of Laughter'. It speaks of how different our world could be, if our societies built
themselves around compassion for all. You could also help children to listen to
selected words, and observe and practice word stress. The teacher should
pronounce all the new words and make the children repeat them correctly. The
comprehension questions given beside each paragraph must be done and
appropriate answers are to be discussed. A reading comprehension passage is given
where students arrange the sentences in logical sequence. There are antonyms with
prefix 'dis', 'im', 'un' used along with a crossword puzzle, true or false statements, and
dramatization to facilitate learning.
The grammar in communication covers Gerunds, Participles and Infinitives
with examples to follow. Exercises such as fill in the blanks, substitution table,
choosing the correct grammatical word for each of the above topics, are given.
The poem an extremely child-friendly one You Can't Be That, No, You Can't
Be That by Brian Patten describes each one's ambition in life and how it differs from
person to person. Children need to be encouraged to pursue their dreams in life,
whatever they may be. They can discuss their dreams and ambitions along with the
other members of their group and how they will work towards achieving them.
In the supplementary reading section, they will read about Saralabehn, a
woman of great courage who fought for justice and truth. She pleads with people and
arouses their interest to save the forests and never to give up until they succeed in
their struggle to protect the environment. Slogans and captions on keeping the
environment clean or its protection, can be written. Children may be encouraged to
reflect upon what courage implies. There is an additional Language Enrichment
story, called It's Who You Are, That Matters, that builds upon the skills of
sequencing and summarizing. Children should also be encouraged to write poems
and essays using their creativity, and also role play and debate.
THE POWER OF LAUGHTER
Do we need to be supervised, in order to be good?
Do we need to build high walls, in order to be safe?
Can we live and let live, without the fear of punishment?
And..xan we laugh?
Long, long ago, there was a village
without a headnnan. There was complete
harmony among the villagers. Everybody
helped each other and had care and concern
for all. Into such a village came a stranger. He
boasted to the villagers of how he had solved all
problems he had faced in the village he came
from. He said he had fought and defeated the
enemies of that village. Since everyone in that
village was dead, he did not want to stay on
there. So here he was, a brave and
experienced headman, ready to help this
village - his new home - to fight its enemies.
In words and phrases
1. What did the stranger look like?
2. Who brought peace and
happiness to people around?
3. Where did the headman live?
4. What did he do all day?
5. What was the punishment for
those who laughed?
gashed: badly cut
He looked impressive. He was at least six feet tall, and
had a face gashed with grim scars and a deep voice. But no
one knew what to do with the stranger's offer to help.
"You see, we really don't have any enemies," said a middle aged woman. She
wove beautiful baskets, and did many things with love and concern for the people
around her. Many a time, her wise decision-making had brought peace back after a
quarrel. Now, she told the stranger, "We really don't have any enemies."
"A village without enemies?" he asked, and then answered his own question,
"Impossible! You're lucky I came here in time to save all of you."
The basket weaver opened her eyes wide, as if screwing up courage to talk to
this scary looking stranger, and asked hesitantly, "Sir - Do we have some secr et
enemies? Do you know who they are?" beamed: smiled happily
loftily: in a superior way
The stranger beamed at her. "There are all kinds of enemies,"
he informed her loftily.
"There's the kind of enemy who wants the water from your lakes and rivers.
Then, there is the kind of enemy who wants all your money. There is yet another kind
of enemy, who thinks of you as his enemy, so what can you do but make him your
The stranger warned them in a dramatic whisper, "Even now, while you are
wasting time looking for your enemies, your enemy is getting ready - cleverly,
cunningly, - to come and defeat you."
The headman's speech got the people thinking. They agreed thatthis was very
bad. How could they have been so innocent? And how were they going to fight when
they had never gone to a battle before? Maybe they needed someone mean and
tough like this war hero to be their leader?
"Since this stranger is experienced, why don't we make him our headman?"
said a young man. That is how the stranger became one of them. Not just one of them,
but their new all powerful village headman who was going to prepare them for battle.
A few months had gone by. The village seemed to
have changed completely. So completely, that they, its
makers and citizens barely recognized it. All the walls
in the village grew taller day by day. There were a lot of
new jobs for people - for things like sticking crushed
glass on the new tall walls surrounding every building,
enclosing houses and trees with barbed wire and piling up sandbags at the corner of
every street so that groups of fierce looking men
could hide behind them. Every house now had a
peculiar kind of chimney - what iooked iike a
chimney was reaiiy a spy hole. Disguise shops
had opened up on every street and were doing
Schoois had repiaced subjects iike
iiterature, arithmetic and science with the art of
spying on enemies,
In words and phi
1. Why did the viilagers accept
the stranger as their ieader?
2. Where did the headman
3. What did he do aii day?
spy hole: a piece from
which one can iook
without being seen
backstabber: one who
hits from the back
who promises and then
on your neighbours, and even spying on your best
friends. Neighbourhoods gave prizes for the best
backstabber and double Grosser of the week, and the
most passionate hater, it seemed naturai then that the
only animals ieft in the viliage were fierce watch dogs
trained to bite and tear apart anyone who iooked iike an
The viiiage headman moved into the best house in the
viilage, a house iike a bungaiow. He sat aii day in a huge,
plush throne-like chair, consuiting his growing band of war /^
experts, weapon-makers, spies and astroiogers. One day, the viliage
headman asked his chief astroioger when he wouid die. "Not for a
iong time," fawned the oily man, and added in desperation, "not tiii
the viiiage overflows with fun and laughter." IHe thought that this was a
good answer. There was so iittie iaughter in the viiiage. The headman
didn't iike this prediction one bit. IHe cailed a meeting of ail peopie in
"We must be prepared," he said to them. "We have to eat and
sieep and breathe hate for our enemies, if we want to win. There's no
ti me for siiiy things like fun and laughter. So from today, no iaughter in
this city, ifs banned."
The great village became a silent one. And since no one was allowed to laugh,
laughter died. So did a lot of other things. How for example, could you have dance and
music, sports and festivals, or just plain old noise without laughter? People started
falling ill. The doctors suddenly became very important people.
The basket weaver decided she had to do
something. She spent hour after hour in the village
corner looking at passers- by, hoping for inspiration.
She saw that everyone badly needed to laugh. Then
an idea struck her. There was an old banyan tree that
had been in the village for as long as she could
remember. The tree was so old that its trunk was
hollow. The woman remembered the games she and her friends had played when
they were children hiding inside the tree trunk, and scaring unsuspecting villagers.
Suddenly, the woman grinned and ran to find her army -the one
that would fight the new village headman's reglme._The basket
weaver was never at a loss! Gopal, Kevin,
Nasira, and Kannagi - were the basket
weaver's army. Not one of them was more
than ten years old. One after the other, her
army slipped into the hollow tree trunk. The trunk had the odd
hole or two, so they had no trouble, breathing, or peeping.
never at a loss:
It was a bit of a tight squeeze, but they didn't mind it
Then, the woman made sure a new rumour spread Mice wild fire. The rumour was
that in their iaughterless village, there was a big old banyan tree in the village comer
that had taken to laughing. Every time someone passed the old banyan tree, the tree
would laugh. And what a laugh it was! A laugh that began like an innocent, playful little
giggle, grew so loud and noisy that it
became a great big wave. No one
could pass the tree without getting
infected. Everyone wanted to laugh!
tight squeeze : crowded
rumour : false story
spread like wild fire : passed on very fast
In words and ph rasas
What happened every time
someone passed the banyan
What happened to the
headman as he neared the
What did he yell?
One of the village headman's spies, a
frowning old tattletale, passed by and began to
laugh helplessly. The headman's chief weapon-
maker had to be rushed to the doctor, because he
was laughing so much that he had a temble
stomach ache. The basket weaving woman
couldn't help laughing either. The furious
headman went to the village corner. When he
reached the banyan tree, and heard its laughter
the headman too felt like laughing aloud. He
almost did, but covered his mouth, and turned it
into a hoarse cough. "Chop that tree!" he managed to yell!
IHis chief tree-cutters came running with axes. But once they got close to the
tree, they found themselves pelted with tiny stones from inside its trunk, as if there
was a band of teasing monkeys hiding there. And even while they were being hit by
the stones, the tree cutters were laughing so much they could
hardly hold on to their axes.
tattle tale: sneak
The headman took the basket weaver aside, and asked, 'Whafs happened to
this tree? Is it possessed?"
'Yes sir, I think you are right" said the woman wiping the tears of laughter off
her face. "It looks like a bad case, sir. Maybe it's some magic. Could our enemies have
done something to this tree?" But for once, the ^^ _^
headman didn't care about the enemy. The mT j^ ^-^r^ J
headman remembered the astrologer's prediction: ff^^t^v^^^ T
that he, the fighting headman, would die the day
laughter came back to the people of the village. And
besides, all this laughter was making the headman
fieel positively sick.
"I have to pack," he told the woman. I'm in a hurry. If anyone asks, will you tell
them I've had to rush to another city that needs my help?" He rushed away in panic.
The basket weaver didn't have to tell anyone anything. The minute the
headman ran away from the village, the woman heard a burst of clapping, a chorus of
cheering, drums, pipes, anklets, and lots of laughter. The villagers were astounded to
see four little children, two boys, and two girls, crawl out of the old banyan tree.
The children were laughing.
LET US REMEMBER:
1 . Who was the newstrangerof the village?
2. Who were the three kinds of enemies, according to the headman?
3. What did the headman ask people to do with a person who thinks of you as
his / her enemy?
4. What did he say the enemies were doing?
5. What were the changes in the village? Write 3-5 sentences.
[5points-walls,chimneyspyholes, education, neighbourhood, animals]
6. What did the headman ask his astrologer?
7. Why was laughter banned in the village?
8. Whatdid the basket weaver notice?
9. What did she decide to do? [2 lines]
10. Who was rushed to the doctor? Why?
11 . Who were the members of her army? How old were the children?
12. What was the question the headman posed to the lady?
13. Why did the headman leave the village?
14. What did the people do, as soon as the headman left?
LET US UNDERSTAND :
Discuss and share [Write 5 iines]
1 . What are your impressions about the headman? What sort of a person do you
think he is?
2. What were the changes in the village? Fill in and share. [Small Group/Pair]
when we have no enemies
when everyone is an enemy
3. What different ways did the basket weaver and the headman adopt, to settle
quarrels? Write two differences that you see. [Small Group/Pair]
What do you feel is a good way to settle quarrels?
DO AND SEE :
Let us have fun with words. Using the given clues fill in the grid.
1 . One who foretells the
1. Smile happily
2. Secretly watches people
3. One who reveals secrets
Compound words are formed by adding 2 or 3 words together, but used as a
Read the following compound words, stressing the parts underlined. You can
also consult a dictionary to understand how the stress is marked with a dash above
and to the left of the syllable.
Note : Some compound words are written side by side with a small space, some with
a hyphen between and some fuse together. You will know the reason in
walkie-talkie (Say 'wa' more loudly than other syllables)
1 . broad minded 2. spell bound 3. funny bone 4. keyboard
5. black board
Fun with words: [pair workl
Form antonyms using the prefix
'dis' 'im' 'in' 'un' to the words given in column A and fill in column B.
LET US RECALL:
State whether true |T| or false [F]:
1 . The new headman was a soft, gentle man.
2. The basket weaver was loved by all.
3. The village headman changed the village
completely for the worse.
4. The old banyan tree came to the rescue of
5. The people in the village were sad when the
headman left them.
6. There were four children in the woman's army.
DISCUSS AND SHARE:
What do you think the tattletales did for the rest of their lives?
LET US LEARN - THE GERUND :
Let's look at the following sentences;
> Walking is a good exercise.
> Reading story books gives pleasure.
> Can you teach painting?
> She likes swimming.
^ The highlighted words are known as 'gerunds' or Verbal nouns'. They are
used as simple nouns to function as a subject or an object in a sentence.
^ Gerunds are formed by verbs ending with 'ing'.
I) Read the following sentences and pick out the gerunds :
1 . Watching plays can be fun.
2. Keeping left is always safe.
3. Eating moderately is good for health
4. Climbing mountains is a good sport
5. Reading poetry teaches us many things.
2] Read the information on the sign boards and try to form gerunds to
compiete the sentences :
Don't park the vehicles herel 1, Parking the vehicles here is prohibited
Don't trespass - prohibited area 2, is prohibited.
Don't speak iil of others 3. iii of others is a bad habit.
Match the following :
Eating too much
Walking on the roof
a good exercise
a pleasant hobby
Playing on the street
bad for health
LET US LEARN - INFINITIVES :
Read these sentences;
1. To err is human.
He wants to come up in life.
Dhanush likes to read science fiction.
To obey the traffic rules is a must.
You are invited to attend the party.
The highlighted phrases denote the infinitive form of the verb. Infinitives are
used as nouns to function as a subject or object in sentences.
> Infinitives are formed when 'to' comes before a verb.
1) Underline the 'infinitives' in the following sentences :
1 . Karthiga has decided to go abroad.
2. To get up early in the morning is good for health.
3. David wants to study Biology.
4. To protect the environment is the order of the day.
5. To find fault with others is easy.
2) Pick out at least five verbs from the list given here:
Try to form an infinitive with those verbs and write simple sentences;
Read newspapers to enrich you
3) Rewrite the following pairs of sentences Into one, using an Infinitive for you:
1. Sushma walks fast. She must catch the train.
Sushma walks fast to catch the train.
2. Kishore works hard. He will feel happy.
3. My friend leaves for Trichy next week. He will visit his uncle there.
4. Eat well. You will be healthy.
5. Be positive. You can shape your attitude.
4) Fill in the sentences with suitable infinitives given below:
(to eat, to carry, to wear, to learn, to follow)
* The parcel was heavy.
* These clothes are comfortable
^ English Is easy.
* Her speech was difficult
^ Apples are good
5) Complete each of the following sentences with an infinitive of your choice.
-^ He agreed
^ I forgot
^ Would you I ike
^ They allowed her.
iK The officer ordered his nnen
LET US LEARN - THE PARTiCiPLE :
Read this sentence;
Seeing the tiger the man ran away.
> 'Seeing' is a form of the 'verb' and has an object, namely, tiger.
'Seeing' is also like an 'adjective' as it qualifies the 'noun', man. It is,
therefore, called a Participle.
> A participle is partly a Verb' and partly an 'adjective'.
It is a verbal adjective.
Now, read these sentences;
1 . I saw a man running along the road.
2. The child spoke with a girl selling flowers.
3. Hearing a loud sound, they rushed out of the room.
4. The boy cried, thin king that he would be beaten.
In all these sentences, the highlighted words are 'present participles' as they
indicate an unfinished action. However, the sentences given are determined by the
'finite' verbs such as 'saw, spoke, rushed and cried'.
You can read these sentences too :
1 . Driven by heavy rain we took shelter under a tree.
2. We saw a goods train loaded with grain.
3. Stricken with grief she kept herself alone in the room.
4. Time once lost is gone for ever.
In the above sentences, the highlighted words are called as 'past participles'
as they indicate the completed action. The past participles usually end with
-ed, -d, -t or -en'.
> Apart from the above, the present participles and the past participles are used
as adjectives to quaiify the nouns;
1. This Is a dancing doii. ^ ^^
2. Mother bought a tilting grinder.
3. These are rotten fruits.
4. The poiice captured the stolen jeweis.
i-iere the words 'dancing, tilting, rotten, stolen' are quaiifying the nouns
foiiowing them. iHowever, 'dancing and tilting' are present participles and 'rotten
and stolen' are past participles.
1) Underline the participles from the foiiowing sentences and say whether it is a
present participie or a past partlcipie.
For you: Seeing the poiice, the thief hid himself. [Present participle]
By you :
1 . i-iearing the noise, i woke up.
2. it was sad to see the house bumt to ashes.
3. Enraged, the ieader ieft the meeting.
4. Furnishing the detaiis he requested for a job.
5. Seema is a person ioved by aii.
6. We met a man riding on a donlcey.
7. The bus was driven at fuil speed.
8. She njshed home seeing the time.
9. They have bought a brand new cycie for themselves.
10. A roiling stone gathers no moss
11 . We shouid not worry about the falien leaves.
12. Recovering from iiiness, he was very weak.
13. We saw a man begging in the streets.
2) Pick a few verbs in the box given beiow.
Form a participie and write a sentence.
Driven by hurry, everyone pushed the car.
Observing the flower, they all felt happy.
O the ice cream the children rejoiced at the park.
O the balloon vendor, the girl was happy to buy a balloon.
O Many children were themselves on the giant wheel.
O the energy of the children, the teacher suggested a game.
O We saw people to the ticket stand.
O Children relish
WORD PLAY: Combine words!
Link a participle, to a noun; write it in the third grid and mention if it is the
present of the past participle. Make two of your own, as well!
broken furniture past participle
TRY THIS AS WELL:
Join the pairs of sentences together using Participles. Follow the first
1 . We listened to the radio. It was playing in the next room.
We listened to the radio playing in the next room.
2. We could smell something. It was burning in the kitchen.
3. The farmers heard the boy. He was shouting for help.
4. Look at the policeman. He is controlling traffic.
YOU CAN'T BE THAT, NO, YOU CAN*T BE THAT
What do you dream to be? Do you feel troubled by what other people think you
should or shouldn't be? Keep your dreams! They make you who you are!
I told them:
When I grow up
I'm not going to be a scientist
Or someone who reads the news on W.
No, a million birds will fly through me.
I'm going to be a tree.
You can't be that, No, you can*t be that.
I told them:
When I grow up, I'm not going to be an airline pilot,
a dancer, a lawyer, or an MC.
No. huge whales will swim in me, I'm going to be an ocean.
They said: C>^^
You can't be that. No, you can^ be that.
I told them:
I'm not going to be a DJ,
a computer programmer, a musician, or beautician
No, streams will flow through me, I'll be the home of eagles;
I'll be full of nooks, crannies, valleys, and fountains.
I'm going to be a range of mountains, ^^—^
You can't be that. No, you can*t be that.
I asked them:
Just what do you think I am?
Just a child, they said.
And children always become at least one of the things we want them to be.
They do not understand me.
I'll be a stable if I want, smelling of fresh hay.,
I'll be a lost glade in which unicorns still play.
They do not realize I can fulfill any ambition.
They do not realize among them walks a magician. - Brian Patten
MC : Master of Ceremonies; someone whose job is to introduce speakers
and performers at a public event
Disc Jockey; someone who plays CDs and records in a club,
restaurant, and so on, or someone who introduces and plays music on
long narrow holes or openings
a mythical white horse like creature with a single horn growing from its
A refrain is a chorers the repetition of a line or lines through a poem, at given
intervals. Find the refrains in the poem. What purpose do they serve?
Who is the T in the poem? And who does 'them' refer to? Is there a specific person, or
could it be any young person?
LET US REMEMBER:
1 . In the first stanza, what doesn't the young person want to become when he/she
2. What does she/he want to become? Why?
3. In the second stanza, what doesn't the young person want to become when he/she
4. And what did she/he want to become? Why?
5. In the third stanza, what doesn't the young person want to become when he/she
6. What did she/he want to become? Why?
7. Why do 'they' feel that she/he can't be 'that'?
8. What did 'they' say when he asked them, 'What do you think I am?'
9. Why does he say, 'They do not understand me?'
LET US UNDERSTAND : Discuss in small and large groups
Work in groups of five. Discuss what each of you would like to be. Let the other
group members repeat the refrain in the poem after each person can defend their
Do you sometimes feel that you can't explain a deep thought or dream?
Write about iti
A WOBIAN OF COURAGE
Courage means the ability to sometimes we wallcl
aione, and thinic for ourselves. Tliere liave been peopie
who have stood by what they thought to be right and true,
and they provide inspiration for us all. One such person is|
Saralabehn [behn means 'sister* in Hindi] As a Britisher,
she supported India's struggle for freedom. There were many in England who did. But
not all of them came to India, and spent their lives working for justice and equity in the
Let us read about iier I
Saralabehn's name had not always been Saralabehn. Long ago, when she had
lived with her parents in England, it had been Catherine Mary Heilman.
One day, young Catherine heard about Mahatma Gandhi and the freedom
movement in India. "I must join the Indian people in their struggle," Catherine said, 'Yor
they are fighting for freedom, tnjth and justice."
That is how she came to India and met Mahatma Gandhi who spoke to her
about the country and its people. Young Catherine was inspired by Mahatma
Gandhi's words. However, he wamed her that most of the people of India lived in the
villages and were poor.
"Can you live with them and work with them?" asked Gandhiji.
"I can and I will", answered Catherine.
She made her home in the villages in the Kumaon hills and worked among the
She began to call herself Saraladevi and she started a school for giris where
they leamtto care for the earth. They learnt about their environment, the Kumaon hills
in the Himalayas, the rivers that begin there and the forest which is their home.
They learnt how the forest looked after them.
"The forests look after our needs. We in turn must look after our forests," she
told her students. Years passed, but Saralabehn never lost touch with Gandhiji and
the freedom movement.
In August 1942, Gandhiji started the 'Quit India Movement' and decided to
launch a non-violent call to force the British to leave India. News reached the village
that the people of the country had risen against the British. "Quit India immediately!"
they shouted too. The angry British rulers put thousands in jail. Saralabehn joined the
freedom fighters and led them in the Kumaon district. The hills came alive with the cry
of "Quit India". She went from valley to valley, helping the women whose men had
been jailed. This did not please the British and very soon Saralabehn was herself put
In 1947, India became free and the freedom fighters came out of the jails.
There was much joy when India became independent. "Now our problems are over,"
sang everyone. But they were wrong. The struggle was not over; there were other
battles to fight.
Saralabehn saw selfish people in their greed for money come to the Himalayan
forests for their rich timber. They cut down the trees and carried them away in their
They did not care that when they destroyed the forests, they were destroying
the homes of the people. They only thought about the money they would make.
Saralabehn saw all this with horror. All her life, she had fought for justice and truth. "It
is no different now, "she told herself. We must fight the evil forces that are destroying
our beloved Himalayan forests."
Once more, she put herself into the struggle- a new kind of struggle this time- a
struggle for the earth, its soil, its forests, its rivers and lakes against the greed and
stupidity of humans. She wrote many books, articles and letters on the subject and
roused the people against the dangers of hurting the environment. With her followers,
she went from village to village, working to prevent the traders from cutting down the
old and beautiful trees.
"We must never give up", she cried "We must save our forests, our Himalayas,
our environment." Saralabehn did not live to see the end of her struggle. She became
ill and her condition rapidly deteriorated. But through all her pain, her thoughts were
about her people and their environment.
"Remember," she whispered as she lay dying, "the struggle to save the forest
is not easy. But we must not give it up. It must go on". To this day, the people of the
Kumaon hills tell their children and grandchildren the story of this brave women and
LET US REMEMBER:
1 . Where did Catherine Mary Heilman live?
2. What was she fascinated by and what did she do?
3. Why did she change her name to Saraladevi?
4. What did she do, in the Kumaon Hills?
5. What did girls learn, in her school?
6. What did Saralabehn do, during India's struggle for freedom?
7. What did she find happening in the Kumaon hills, after India's freedom?
8. What did she do?
9. What were her last words, to the people of Kumaon?
Work in pairs, and discuss share and make sentences using these phrases
1. inspired by
2. in close touch with
3. make people aware
4. moved on
Write a short paragraph about a time when you have had the courage to
stand alone and iive by what you know to be true.
Language Enrichment - READING COMPREHENSION
Summarizing / Sequencing
If s Who You Are, That Matters
"Is it true, Daddy? Will we have to give up ali this?" Renu iool^ed around the
expensively furnished drawing room. "Please say that it is just a joke!"
"I'm sorry, Renu, but it is true," her father said. "My business has done badly
and i have iost money. So our present iifestyie has to change."
"Have we reaiiy become poor?" Renu whispered.
"No. We haven't become poor. But we must be careful how we spend money,"
her mother explained to her bewiidered thirteen-year-old daughter.
Renu's parents had toid her that they would be moving to a small flat some
distance away from their present house. They all worked to make their small flat cosy
and nice. Renu had to use the public bus to go to school as her father no longer owned
a car. Renu entered her classroom to put away her bag before joining her friends
"Hi, Tabu! Have you started your revision for the exams?" Renu asked her
"No, there's plenty of time." Tabu turned to greet her friend, Sonia.
Renu found it a little odd that the girls stared at her and exchanged whispers. It
occurred to her that many girls whom she had thought of as her best friends, were
trying to avoid her company. Perhaps they had heard about her father's
"Happy Birthday, Renu dear," her parents greeted her one morning. "We've
planned a party for you on Sunday. You can invite all your class friends!"
Renu was very touched that despite their troubles, her parents had arranged a
party to make her happy. She wrote out the invitation cards and took them to school,
proudly. After the assembly, she sought out Tabu and the others.
"Do come to my birthday party on Sunday!" She invited them all as she handed
them the cards.
"I will come if possible!" Tabu's voice seemed strained.
Renu looked around the neatly arranged sitting room with satisfaction. Her
mother had made the sandwiches, cake and snacks herself. Renu had enjoyed
helping her. Everything was in place. Only the guests had to arrive.
The doorbell rang and some girls came in. Renu wasn't very friendly with them,
especially Maya who sat next to her in class. Maya had never been a part of the 'smart
set. But a guest is a guest and Renu chatted with them pleasantly.
Time passed, but none of Renu's special friends came. Renu concealed the
hurt she felt and decided to cut the cake. She was surprised to find that she enjoyed
the evening spent with Maya and the other girls. "It's so strange that I never noticed
them before," she thought. Why did I think they were dull?
"Why didn't you come to my party yesterday?" Renu asked Tabu when the two
girls met at school. "My aunt fell ill suddenly and we all went to see her," Tabu replied.
"Hey, Tabu! Thanks for treating me to the film yesterday evening!" Sonia
exclaimed as she came up just then. Maya, who was standing some distance away
with Renu, heard this. Both girls showed no reaction. But Maya noted that Tabu
looked ashamed of herself.
"Don't worry," she said to Renu. "She is the loser."
A sudden downpour at the end of the day took the girls by surprise as they
streamed out of the gates. Maya and Renu covered their heads with books as they
walked to the bus stand. A car whizzed by and Renu saw Tabu sitting in the rear seat.
She pretended not to see them.
"I was a show off like her," Renu had the grace to admit.
Renu and Maya came closer together in the following weeks. Her parents were
pleased to see how Renu had adapted herself to the changed situation and learnt true
contentment. She was careful with her things, and never wasted food. Influenced by
Maya, she too started to see the beauty of living simply and well.
Renu thought how snobbish she had been - how she had earlier used the
generous allowance given by her parents to buy the friendship of girls like Tabu and
Sonia. But they had spurned herwhen herfatherhad lost money.
Maya wasn't impressed either by Renu's wealth or her lack of it. She had
taught her that what matters in life is not what you have - it is who you are.
Summarizing /Sequencing :
Rearrange the given sentences in logical sequence: Write the number
1 . Tabu, Sonia and some others did not attend the birthday party.
2. Maya was not concerned about Renu's status.
3. Renu's father's business wasn't doing well, and the family had to face tough
4. Renu prepared invitation cards for all herfriends for her birthday party.
5. The family moved into a smaller apartment as they had to cut down their
6. Renu and her mother worked hard, to make all the food for the party.
7. Maya and some of her other classmates attended Renu's birthday party.
8. Through Maya, Renu learnt that it is not what you have that matters, but who you
9. Renu's parents told Renu to invite herfriends home for her birthday.
LET US REMEMBER:
Choose the correct answer
1 . was Renu's best friend in the beginning.
a) Sonia b) Tabu c) Maya
2. Renu travelled to school by .
a) car b) train c)bus
3. Renu's motherwas pleased to see how her daughter to the situation
a) adapted b) disliked c) irritated
4. Tabu gave a wrong reason for not attending the party .
a) aunt was sick b) went to the movies c) raining heavily
5. Maya taught Renu to value .
a) what she had b) her exam performance c) who she was
LET US UNDERSTAND:
Present Et to your class - Dramatization Small group
In your group, discuss this prose passage. Write a small play using this story.
You can adapt it to any similar situation that you have encountered in your class.
NOTE TO THE TEACHER
The title of the prose passage, 'Living Amicably' is an excerpt taken from
Dr. Kalann's autobiography. He writes objectively and dispassionately about his
childhood. In describing his boyhood years in Rameswaram, Dr. Kalam paints a rare
picture of communal harmony. He had met with discrimination, but because of the
influence of broad-minded people like his parents, teachers and elders, he was able
to understand what propels positive change. The prose piece, the poem and parallel
passages all deal with some facts of global harmony. Exploit them to teach language,
social values and to develop social sensitivity. As suggested, you can role play these
incidents, adding more dialogue, and enact them in your Literary Association
The poem, 'No IVIen are Foreign' expresses how all of us, no matter which
country we may belong to, are one in our humanness. We all need the same elements
such as air, water and light. We are engaged in similar pursuits. So why should we
fight against each other and spoil the earth? Enable the students to appreciate the
metaphor used for war and the weapons of war in the last stanza and share the poet's
desire for global peace.
The grammar section introduces clauses and phrases, using sentences from
the text. You can get the pupils to identify clauses and phrases from other lessons too,
both as pair and as group activities, to make it interesting and to maximize their oral
use of language.
The parallel passage and supplementary reading are for independent reading
by the learners. For the Supplementary passage, an adaptation of Hemangini
Ranade's beautiful story, 'Sorry, Best Friend' has been selected. The story
inimitably explores the difference between the social and the psychological. Two
children discover the beauty of friendship, beyond the divisions that money can
cause. You could also ask students to assess their reading speed and note the
progress week by week.
Translation is a complex skill. Capturing the essence of the original text is more
important than word for word translation. You can begin with sentences and then give
each stanza of Bharathi's poem to each group to translate. The extension activities
and the project work can also involve family members. Contribute as much as you can
to bring peace, "for blessed are the peacemakers."
From Dr. A.PJ. ABDUL KALAM'S Autobiography,
'Wings of Fire-
As you know, India is a federal, constitutional parliamentary
democracy and is pluralistic [multiple religions]i multilingual
[multiple languages] and multi-ethnic [multiple cultures]. This is
what makes us what we are. What does this mean, for each one
of us? Agreatvisionaivglvesusaclue...
Apart from being a notable scientist and engineer, Dr. A. P.J. Abdul Kalam
served as the 1 1th President of India from the period 2002 to 2007. People loved and
respected him so much during his tenure as President that he was popularly called
the People's President. Due to his achievements in the area of science, Dr. Kalam
had already received the Bharat Ratna before he was appointed to the highest office
in the country. In his autobiography 'Wings of Fire' he traces the various phases of his
life as a son, student, scientist and leader.
I was bom into a middle class family in the island town of Rameswaram. My
father Jainulabdeen had neither much formal education nor wealth. Despite these
disadvantages, he possessed great Innate wisdom and a tme generosity of spirit.
IHe had an ideal helpmate in my mother Ashiamma.
My parents were widely regarded as an Ideal couple. I was one of their
children. We lived in our ancestral house, which was built in the middle of the 19th
century. It was a large concrete house, made of limestone and brick on the Mosque
Street in Rameswaram. My austere
father used to avoid all inessential
connforts and luxuries, i-iowever
I would say mine was a very secure
childhood both materially and
emotlonally.The famous Shiva temple,
innate - natural, in-bom
generosity- being liberal
austere - one who chooses a simple lifestyle
comforts - things that make your life easier
luxuries -expensive things.
which made Rameswaram so sacred to pilgrims was about a ten minute walk from
our house. Our locality was predominantly Muslim but there were quite a few Hindu
families too living amicably with their Muslim neighbours.
Pick out the words that describe
There was a very old mosque in our locality
where my father would take me for evening
prayers. When my father came out of the mosque
after the prayers, people of different religions
would be sitting outside, waiting for him. Many of
them offered bowls of water to my father, who
would dip his fingertips in them and say a prayer. This water was then carried home
for invalids. I also remember people visiting our home to offer thanks after being
cured. The high priest of Rameswaram temple, Pakshi Lakshmana Sastry was a very
close friend of my father. One of the most vivid memories of my
In a word/phrase
Did Kalam's father
prefer a luxurious
early childhood is of the two men, each in his traditional attire,
discussing spiritual matters. When I was old enough to ask
questions, I asked my father about the relevance of prayer. My
father told me there was nothing mysterious about prayer.
Rather, prayer made possible a communion of the spirit between people. "When you
pray," he said, "you transcend your
body and become a part of the cosmos,
which knows no division of wealth, age.
caste or creed.
I have throughout my life, tried
to emulate my father in my own world
of science and technology.
I have endeavoured to understand the fundamental
truths revealed to me by my father, and I feel convinced
that there exists a divine
pilgrims - people who travel to a holy place
predominantly - mainly
invalids - sick people
emulate -to try to be like
endeavour - attempt
In a word/phrase
Who was his father's
What does Kalam remember
power that can lift one up
from confusion, misery,
melancholy and failure,
and guide one to one's
Is it possible to be
friends with someone
differently from you?
Who is your close
Can there be 'ranks' in a
I had three close friends in my childhood, Ramanadha Sastry, Aravindan and
Sivaprakasan. All these boys were from orthodox Hindu Brahmin families. As
children none of us ever felt any difference among ourselves because of our religious
differences and upbringing. Oneday when I was in
the fifth standard at the Rameswaram Elementary
School, a new teacher came to our class.
In a word/phrase
Who were Kalam's friends?
I used to wear a cap which marked me as
Muslim and I always sat in the front row, next to Ramanadha Sastry.
He always wore a sacred thread. The new teacher could not put up with a
Hindu priest's son sitting with a Muslim boy. In accordance with our social ranking as
the teacher saw it, I was asked to go and sit on the back bench. I felt very sad and so
did Ramanadha Sastry. He looked utterly downcast as I shifted to the last row, which
left a lasting impression on me.
in a word/phrase
Do you think Kalam relished his
first meal in his teacher's house?
What surprised Kalam on his
second visit to his teacher's
After school, we went home and told our
respective parents about the incident.
Lakshmana Sastry summoned the teacher
and in our presence told the teacher that he
should not spread the poison of social
inequality and communal intolerance in the
minds of innocent children. He bluntly
asked the teacher to either apologize or quit the school and the island. Not only did
the teacher regret his behaviour, but the strong sense of conviction Lakshmana
Sastry conveyed, ultimately reformed this
My science teacher Sivasubramania
Iyer though an orthodox Brahmin with a very
conservative wife, was something of a rebel.
He did his best to break social barriers,
so that people from varying back grounds
orthodox - closely following old,
traditional, religious beliefs
downcast - sad, depressed
summoned - ordered
apologize - say sorry for a
conviction - strong belief
conservative - traditional
horrified - disgusted, outraged.
mingle easily. One day the science
teacher invited me to his home for a meal.
His wife was horrified at the idea of a
Muslim boy being invited to dine in her
ritually pure kitchen. Sivasubramania
Iyer was not perturbed, nor did he get
angry with his wife, instead he served me
with his own hands and sat down beside
me to eat his meal. His wife watched us
from behind the kitchen door. I wondered whether she had observed any difference
in the way I ate rice, drank water or cleaned the floor after the meal .
When I was leaving his house, Sivasubramania Iyer invited me to join him for
dinner again the next weekend. Observing my hesitation, he told me not to get
upset. "Such problems have to be confronted," he said. When I visited his house the
next week Sivasubramania Iyer's wife took me inside her kitchen and served me food
with her own hands!
For my Higher Studies, I had to leave Rameswaram and study at the District
Head Quarters at Ramanathapuram. My father took me to the mosque and recited a
prayer from the Quran. He said. This island may have housed your body, but not your
soul. Your soul dwells in the house of tomorrow,
which none of us can visit, even in our dreams. May
God bless you, my child !"Despite my homesickness, I was determined to come to
temns with the new environment, because I knew my father had invested great hopes
in my success. My father visualized me as a Collector in the making and I thought it my
duty to realize my father's dream, although I desperately missed the familiarity,
security and comforts of Rameswaram. I tried hard to control my thoughts and my
mind, to Influence my destiny.
The highest result ofeducatian is tolerance.
perturbed -worried, anxious
- Helen Keller
LET US REMEMBER:
1 . Where did Kalam live?
2. How does Kalam describe his locality?
3. What happened when Kalam's father came out of the mosque after prayers?
4. What did the new teacher ask Kalam to do? Why?
5. How did his friend feel?
6. Why did it leave a lasting impression on Kalam?
7. What did Lakshmana Sastry do?
8. Why did Kalam have to leave Rameswaram?
Tick the correct synonyms of the words underlined
1. Kalam experienced communal harmony.
a) purity b) unity c) innocence
2. Jainulabdeen possessed great innate wisdom,
a) famous b) inborn c) sacred
3. Hindu families lived amicably with their Muslim neighbours
a) emotionally b) quietly c) cordially
4. Sivasubramania Iyer was not perturbed,
a) flustered b) worried c) denied
5. Sivasubramania Iyer's wife was very conservative.
a) traditional b) ideal c) liberal
Match the following words
with their an
Dr. A. P.J .Abdul Kalam's memories... ThePensieve! Fill in with words/phrasesf
Of his focaVity
Of his frfends
Of the new
and his destiny.*.
Of his father...
Of what Lakshmana Sastry did
Of what Sivasubramaniya Iyer did
Of his father's words...
Of what his wife did
LET US UNDERSTAND:
Let us think more about the lesson.
"When you pray", he said, "you transcend your body and become a part of the
cosmos, which knows no division of wealth, age, caste or creed."
What did Kalam's father mean?
"I have throughout my life, tried to emulate my father in my own world of
science and technology."
What does Kalam mean?
"Such problems have to be confronted," he said,
What did Sivasubramania Iyer mean?
"Your soul dwells in the house of tomorrow, which none of us can visit, even
in our dreams."
What did Kalam's father mean?
"I tried hard to control my thoughts and my mind, to influence my destiny.
What does Kalam mean?
Describe in about ten lines Dr. Kalam's unforgettable experiences at the
Rameswaram Elementary School
READ AND ENJOY:
The following is a story about how the rainbow was formed.
Once upon a time, all the colours in the world started to quarrel; each claimed
that he or she was the best, the most important, the most useful or the favourite of all.
Violet rose up to her full height and said, ''I am the colour of royalty and
power. Powerful people have always chosen me to represent them.
I am a sign of authority and control"
Indigo spoke quietly. "I am the colour of silence. I represent thought
Blue interrupted ''Consider the sky and the sea, the basis of life. The
sky gives space, peace and serenity and it is blue".
Green said "I am the most important one: I am the sign of life and of
hope. I am in the majority. The whole world has decided to go green!"
M:: [[o\^' chuckled [made a laughing sound] and said, "I bring laughter,
gaiety and wamith. The sun, the moon, and the stars look golden
yellow; look at a sunflower; without me there would be no fun."
Orange started next. 'I am the colour of health and strength. I cany
all the most important vitamins. Think of carrots, pumpkins, oranges
and mangoes. I fill the sky at sunrise or sunset."
Red shouted out, ''I'm the ruler of you all. Blood is life and it is red. If s
the colour of danger and of bravery. I am the colour of passion and of
love. Remember the red rose."
And so the colours went on boasting, each convinced
that he or she was the best. Suddenly there was a startling
Qolting] flash of brilliant white lightning. Rain started to pour
down relentlessly [without pity]. The colours all crouched
down in fear, drawing close to one another for comfort.
The rain spoke; "You foolish colours, fighting among yourselves, each trying to
dominate the rest. Do you not know that life made you all?
"Life will stretch you across the sky in a great t>ow of colours, as a reminder that
to live is to love, and that you can live together in peace. The rainbow is a promise that
life is with you. It's a sign of hope for tomorrow. And as the rain ceased, the rainbow
And so whenever life has used a good rain to wash the world, it puts the
rainbow In the sky and when we see It, let us remember to appreciate one another.
LET US REMEMBER :
1. Why did each of the colours mentioned In
the passage thinic It was Important?
2. Why did the rain call the colours foolish?
3. What does the rainbow symbolize [represent]?
Draw a rainbow In the box given above and colour It. Then write what each of
the colours means to you.
GRAMMAR - LET US UNDERSTAND - PHRASES AND CLAUSES :
In brief: Look at the sentence,
Jalnulabdeen was Kalam's father.
This is a sentence, because It has a subject, 'Jalnulabdeen' and the
predicate Is "was Kalam's father". It also expresses a complete thought.
This Is a simple sentence. It can also be called a 'Main Clause'.
In the following sentence, the predicate has more than one verb.
Abdul Kalam lived in his ancestral house, which was old.
In this sentence, "Abdul Kalam lived' is a complete thought - it is a sentence, or a
main clause. 'In his ancestral house' does not have a subject or a verb, but adds to the
meaning of the sentence - it is a phrase. 'Which was old' has a subject [the word
which refers to house] and a verb [was], but does not stand on its own. This is called a
Let us look at Phrases and Clauses more carefully.
Phrase - Look at the sentences;
In the beginning, I thought he was cruel. Early in the morning, I wake up
^ The highlighted words form a group by themselves. They make sense, but
not complete sense.
iV They can not stand by themselves, but have to be a part of a larger group
of words which makes complete sense.
^ They have no subject or predicate of their own. Such a group of words is
called a phrase.
Discuss in groups and fitf in the blanks with apt phrases from below.
1. Despite these disadvantages 2. Observing my hesitation
3. In our presence 4. living amicably
5. with their Muslim neighbours 6. As children
1 . he possessed great innate wisdom.
2. There were a few Hindu families,
3. none of us felt any difference among ourselves.
4. Lakshmana Sastry told the teacher that he should not spread the
poison of social inequality.
5. he told me notto get upset.
Identify the phrases in the following sentences and underline them.
1 . An old building stood beside the river.
2. Mithun was in a happy mood.
3. Nanmozhi was shouting at the top of her voice.
4. We shall do it as soon as possible.
5. On her return we asked keshwari many questions.
What are Clauses? Look at this sentence
When the cat is away, the mice will play.
It contains two groups of words.
(1 } When the cat is away and (2) the mice will play.
Each has a subject and predicate of its own but one group of words makes complete
sense, and the other doesn't.
Which group of words makes complete sense?
The mice will play makes complete sense. It is a Main Clause. When the cat is
away has a subject [cat] and a predicate [is away], but does not make complete sense
[the word when builds a condition]. So it is a Subordinate Clause.
Main Clause Sub-ordinate clause
A group of words, which has a subject and predicate of its own and makes
complete sense is called the Main Clause.
A group of words which has a subject and predicate of its own but makes
incomplete sense is called a Subordinate Clause.
When the cat is away, the mice are play.
Sub-ordinate clause Main Clause
Discuss with your partner and fill in the blanks with the subordinate clauses
which was built in the 19*^ century when I revisited his house which left a
lasting impression on me when you pray when I was leaving
1 . We lived in our ancestral house,
2. He looked downcast,
3. you become a part of the cosmos.
4. Iyer invited me to join him for dinner again.
5. Iyer's wife served me food with her own hands.
LET US PRACTISE :
Match the Phrases with suitable causes
On seeing the snake
where 1 was standing
Which looked green in the light
the ship set sail
By working hard
she ran away
The tide having turned
what he asked her
Observing my skill
they bought more idlis
LET US DO : (INDIVIDUAL TASK)
Identify the main and sub-ordinate clauses in the given sentences.
1 . Shiva told Petra that he had passed.
2. Bill Gates is a man who has amasses wealth.
3. The milk man came when the sun rose.
4. If it rains, the match will be cancelled.
5. Though he is thin, he is strong.
The following fsan imaginary dialogue. Read the dialogue with your partner!
Kalam : Gomeon Ram, don't look so sad.
Ram : Kalam, I just can't bear it. This new teacher should not have asked
you to take a back seat.
Kalam : Don't worry Ram. A back seat does not mean that I'm dull.
Ram : No, but haven't we always sat together? I should have joined you!
Kaiam : Perhaps the new teacher doesn't know how friendly we are here. I
feel bad too. But we're still friends, aren't we?
Ram : Yes, we are. But It's not all right! I feel so ashamed! I have to do
something! Wait. I'll tell my father. He will not put up with such things.
Now imagine you are Ram. Fill in the dialogue and role play it in the class.
Sastry : Ram, Kalam, what happened? Why are you looking sad?
Ram : Appa, you won't believe what the new teacher did in the class today.
Sastry : Really! Did he stand on his head?
Ram : No, He
Ram & Kalam: (Give a weak smile)
Sastry : What? Why?
Sastry : This is terrible I will not allow it. Ram, run and bring him here this minute.
Kalam : Sir, I'm not upset, please let it go.
Sastry : No,
Now you can write a dialogue between Sastry and the new teacher.
NO MEN ARE FOREIGN
Countries may go to war, but the people who fight Do you consider all fellow
are human. Each has the same blood, the same hopes, human beings as your
the same needs, and the same search for meaning in life. brothers/sisters?
What makes us forget this?
Why/ Why not?
Our species has survived two World Wars - do you know, of the
70 million people dead in World War II, 40 million were civilians -
people like you and me? The average age of the soldiers who died
was 25! Some countries, like Russia, lost nearly 15 - 20% of their
population. Many of those who died were teenagers. Think of young
people like you, across the worid - and send out a positive thought!
You are the future of the human species on this planet!
Remember, no men are strange, no countries foreign
Beneath all uniforms, a single body breathes
Like ours; the land our brothers walk upon
Is earth like this, in which we all shall lie.
They, too aware of sun and air and water,
Are fed by peaceful harvests, by war's long winter starv'd.
Their hands are ours, and in their lines we read
A labour not different from our own.
Remember they have eyes like ours that wake
Or sleep, and strength that can be won
By love. In every land is common life
That all can recognize and understand.
Let us remember, whenever, we are told
To hate our brothers, it is ourselves
That we shall dispossess, betray, condemn.
Remember, we who take arms against each other.
It is the human earth that we defile.
Our hells of fire and dust outrage the innocence
Of air that is everywhere our own.
Remember, no men are foreign, and no countries strange.
strange - unfamiliar
beneath - underneath
breathes - lives
lie - be buried
dispossess - rob
defile - pollute
outrage - destroy.
James Kirkup (1918 - 2009). was an English poet,
translator and travel writer. He won the Atlantic Award for
Literature in 1950. During the Second World War, he was a
'conscientious objector* - that is, he refused to fight,
saying that he did not want to kill anyone. He instead
worked as a farm labourer during the period of the war.
Understanding the poem:
What do you understand by"beneath all uniforms, a single body breathes like ours"?
What does the poet convey, when he says that our enemies, too, are fed by the earth's
harvests, and starved by the ravages of war?
Carefully examine the following phrases from the poem, and write down what they
mean to you.
hands are ours
eyes like ours
strength that can be won by love
common life that all can recognize and
when we are told to hate others, we dispossess, betray and condemn ourselves
[consider each word separately]
LET US REMEMBER:
1 . This poem is set in the context of war. So pick out words that refer to war.
2. What is the 'uniform' referred to here?
3. To whom does 'brother refer"?
4. Why does the poet compare war to a long winter?
5. What are some experiences common to all people on earth?
LET US UNDERSTAND - DISCUSS AND SHARE : |
Why does the poet say that when
we hate our enemies we betray and
How do we defile the earth during war-time?
In some countries, military service is compulsory. Argue for and against |
compulsory military service.
olili^A) cucn'(!$ jii sanriair
The cat that sits at home,
iS)6ir6iDflra6ir QujbrD^u y^flOOT - ^6a)6u
Haswhitefur, all over
In time, she had a litter,
Amazing! Each kitten - a different colour.
ffiruiua) |ElpQu)n-(!3 @ili^ - a(!3(S
Ash-grey was a little kitten
One dark like tar
uiruiLi (QrDGIuircig @l.i^- QoifiirflDcirLi
Yet another had the colourof a snake.
uirc6l6or iQpQLJiirQj @ili^
While a tiny one was white as milk.
luiraju) ^(oQ- fin iD6ir(S|Dn- ?
6r|bp Qui6Qrp>^ Off ir&McoirGiuiir ?
Though by colour they differ
Aren't all from the same mother?
Do you a colour to greatness assign?
And consider another of low design?
We differ in colour, indeed -
cu6nn-6nn-ifiiacir (!!6ijibp6iDiiiLiuili-ircb - ^^&
Yet do we really differ in need?
The lessons from this litter heed!
6r6iRn-6iiori5Ja6ir QffiLeiDaaGlcTrAcoiriii - gli5J@
luiFAJifa^u) 96ifrGlfD6nrA airfiorflf.
We're alike in thought and deed.
- marraoSI uinr^iur
SORRY, BEST FRIEND
Adapted from the story by Hemangini Ranade
Renu and her thirteen year old daughter Manju had just arrived in l\^umbai from
Delhi. They were living on the tenth floor of a big apartment in a colony. The schools
were still closed. So Manju stayed at home by herself and her mother began going to
office. Of course Manju was not happy when her mother left her alone. But she knew
that for a long time after papa's death her mother couldnt find any office to go to. So
she did not argue with her mother.
Her mother always said all sorts of things to her before leaving. Beti, don't
open thedoorexceptforBai. And when she knocks, first find out who it is. Don*t climb
on anything in the balcony or lean out.
Don't tum on the gas. Be sure to have lunch on time. She would listen
carefuliy to It all.
But she did feel terribly lonely. She watched TV for
a whilei or read in the balcony. Then she would look
down to see what was happening below on the road.
And then eating^ and then sleeping I What else was
there to do, all alone?
A little after her mother left, Bai would come, and
when her work was finished the door would close
after her too. Everything was silent next door as well.
The people who lived there also went away all day.
When her mother retumed in the evening, she would take Manju for a walk.
But she'd be too tired to answer her questions. She would answer one or two and then
stop. Manju would understand that her mother was tired and become silent. But this
made herfeel angry inside.
One day Bai brought her young daughter
along. She said to her sternly, "Now sweep and
swab the house, and not a word out of you." Bai
began cleaning the vessels. The young girl did
her work, silently. She was terribly thin, and not
very clean. Manju asked her name, the young
girl looked frightened. Then she whispered
"Miriam". "How old are you?" asked Manju. "I am
thirteen," said Miriam, shyly. Manju was
shocked. The same age as she was! She looked
so thin and small! "Do you go to school?" She shook her head. "Why not?"
Miriam glanced at her mother. "I attended school till the sixth," she said, and fell
silent. "1*11 be going to school soon," she added. Then Bai said, "She was a good
student. How can she go to school, beti? She does all the houseworic. I need all the
help I can get. Her father has left us, and I have to work more, now." But she needs to
study!" Manju wanted to take her into her room and show her all the toys and books
thatshehad, butthegiri refused to come.
When Bai was ready to go home, Manju requested her to bring Miriam
again. When her mother came back, Manju told her about Miriam. "Did you try talking
to her?" asked her mother.
"She refused to respond every time," said Manju in disgust.
"Keep trying," said her mother.
On Sunday, when Renu was home, she said something to Bai and
after that Miriam came with her mother every day. She began to arrive in clean
clothes. Her hair was neatly oiled and plaited. At lunch time they would eat together.
Mother was now leaving lunch for both of them. Bai would bring Miriam In the morning
and only pick her up in the evening after she had cleaned some of the other
homes in the colony. Now the day flew by for Manju; in the winking of an eye, it
seemed, the day was gone.
The girls had so much to share! Manju and Miriam would talk to each other for
hours! Manju told her all her secrets - about her friends and enemies in Delhi, how
she was going to be an architect, what her father had been likei and all about her
relatives. Miriam in tum talked to her about her life in the chawl, and of her rude
cousin Mehrab. She also spoke of her dream of having her own embroidery unit.
"Don't you want to study?" Manju would ask curiously. "Oh, I do," Miriam would reply.
'It's just that Ammi works so hard!" Her eyes would fill with tears.
At another time, Manju asked, "If you could start studying again, what would
you like to become?" "I would become an IAS officen" Miriam said, resolutely. " I would
do a lot of good for the people." Manju said to her mother, "I'm leaming so much from
Miriam, ammal And it's so much fun!""
Three weeks passed like a dream. May
was almost over. School was to begin in a
week. She was going to a new school, a new
class. Manju wondered what it would be like.
'Will I have friends like Miriam?" she asked
herself. As she looked back at her time with
Miriam, she was filled with gratitude. "Miriam
didn't need to come every day," she thought. 'May be she liked me!" Somehow, the
thought that Miriam liked her made Manju very happy. It was difficult to say why.
Maybe, under other circumstances, she would never have talked to Miriam at all! "And
more important, Miriam would never have talked to me!" she realized. Miriam's trust
in her was like a precious jewel in Manju's heart.
"I'll neverforget these three weeks, never!" she thought.
On the first of June, her mother did something that shocked Manju. She gave
some money to Manju as she was leaving, and asked her to give the money to Miriam
as her salary. Before Manju could question her, she had left. When Miriam amved,
Manju said in an unfriendly way, "Take It, the money you eamed." But it was Bai who
quickly grabbed the money from her hand. That day Manju did not speak to Miriam or
play with her. She went off with her bool^s to her own corner, and when IVIiriam
playfully tried to snatch her book away, she flew at her.
"Leave it alone. You can't read or write, stupid!" Miriam gazed at her for a
moment with all her eyes. Then she shrugged, and started helping her mother.
The next day was Sunday, Manju's mother wanted to take both children to the
beach, because Manju had to go back to school in a couple of days.
Manju was still angry. She walked ahead of her mother and Miriam, without
saying a word. There was a cool breeze blowing, and the waves roared in the
Both children played separately in the water, and then settled down on the
sand. Manju's mother decided to buy both of them some icecream. "When she was
paying for them, Manju said rudely, "Why don't you let Miriam pay for her icecream?"
Miriam's eyes filled with tears. She threw down her icecream and ran away.
That evening, her mother wouldn't talk to Manju. She did not give her dinner,
and she didn't eat either. When it was time to leave for the office, her mother came to
her and said, "I am going to Bai's house to tell her not to bring Miriam here anymore.
You are not her friend, you are her enemy. I am ashamed of you."
When Manju heard her mother's tone, the tears finally came. She was howling
now, and her mother was caressing her in her usual way.
"What is troubling you, Manju?" asked her mother gently. "Oh. I don't know.
Why did you give her money, arnma? I thought she was a friend! All the time, I thought
...I thought she was the best friend I had ever had! But she was just doing a job!"
Manju started crying again, and she wouldn't stop. Renu tried explaining to Manju that
she had actually spoken to Bai, and given Miriam money so that she could go to
school, but it made no difference to her. Finally Renu said, "Come, I want to take you
They went to a cluster of huts right at the end of their lane. It was terribly smelly.
There was garbage lying around in heaps. There was a single water-tap and a crowd
of thirty or forty women around it. Miriam had talked to her of all this, but this. . . was
real! The men and women in the chawl stared at them. Manju felt uncomfortable.
*Whydo they lookat me like that?" she thought. They were now entering a tiny house.
It was so dark Inside that they could hardly see. Then theysawa small figure at
the stove in the smoky corner. It was Miriam, in tom, filthy clothes again. She got up
slowly and looked at Manju. Her eyes were red.
"What do you want?" asked Miriam, mdely.
"Mother Isnt here."
"Manju has come to talk to you, Miriam,"
said Renu softly. 'Give her another chance."
"What chance?" said Miriam, turning away.
There is nothing I want to say to her. Ever."
Then Manju understood. She understood
many things. About things that money cannot understand, or take away. About the
unfaimess of the world. About love and laughter and good times. And just a little bit
about the nature of friendship. She went to Miriam. She put out her hand and touched
her shoulder. And though she whispered, all of them could hear her say, "Sorry, best
FriendrAnd, wonder of wonders, Miriam smiled back!
LET US REMEMBER:
1 . Why did Renu and her daughter come to Mumbai?
2. What instructions did her mother give Manju before leaving for office?
3. How did Manju spend her time at home?
5. Who was Miriam?
6. Why was Miriam not going to school? Till which class had she studied?
7. What did Manju share with Miriam?
8. Which act of her mother upset Manju?
9. What happened at the beach?
1 0. Why had Renu given the money?
1 1 . Why was Manju upset?
12. What was Miriam's locality like?
1 3. Why did people stare at Manju and Renu?
LET US UNDERSTAND:
Let's trace the friendship! Discuss and fill in. Share in Class!
ease and sharing
ease and sharing
hurt and disgust
What Manju understood - Explain
things that money cannot
understand, ortai^e away
What Miriam understood
the unfairness of the world
fove and laughter and good times
a Itttle bit about the nature of
LET US UNDERSTAND:
Discuss and write.
What did Manju feel about her friendship with IVIiriam?
Why did she feel disappointed?
Can you find out what Miriam feels, on tliese occasions?
a. IVIiriam gazed at her for a moment with all her eyes. Then she shrugged,
and started helping her mother Feeling:
b. Miriam's eyes filled with tears. She threw down her ice-cream and ran
c- What chance?" said Miriam, turning away. "There is nothing I want to say to
her. Ever" Feeling:
Do you keep a diary? Write about someone who is your friend. Say how you
became friends. What makes you a good friend?
NOTE TO THE TEACHER
This unit aims at enhancing the students' love of her/his country by reading not
only about a remarkable queen in the prose text but also about everyday heroes and
heroines in the supplementary reading section. They make us feel proud of our
country and our heritage. This also touches on the theme of women's empowerment.
Rani of Jhansi the prose text, adapted from the inspirational narrative of Sandhya
Rao, speaks about the dynamic role that the young Rani Lakshrnibai played during
the Firstwarof Indian Independence.
The exercises on vocabulary will enrich the students' active use of the
language. They will have fun finding out the words hidden in the maze. The road map
activity will enable the students to engage with the inspirational nature of the text.
Alongside, the student will also learn to transfer information as a pre-writing exercise.
Care has been taken in devising activities to help children engage themselves
in active learning through the interactive mode. The children will be introduced to the
transitive and intransitive verbs and active and passive constructions through simple
In Derozio's beautiful and evocative poem To India My Native Land, the poet
laments the vanished glory of India and wants to go back in time to recapture its
ancient grace for the present generation. The teacher could enable the students to
visualize the figures of speech used and to feel and share the poet's nostalgia. You
could help the students to probe and figure out the poet's intention and reflect on what
our own thoughts might be.
The Supplementary Section, After the Storm, adapted from a powerful
children's story written by Deepa Agarwal, evokes in young readers a sense of how
their attitudes can change any situation for the better.
There are many functional enrichment activities such as projects and creative
writing to encourage children to think further and use the target language in a real or a
RANI OF JHANSI
Adapted from Sandhya Rao's story
In Preparation :
Think of 1857 and you think of the Rani of Jhansi, one of
India's bravest women. That was the year when the indian
soidiers openiy tunned against their masters, the British, it was
the first organized fight back, and Indians caiied this their First
War of independence, it was aiso known as 'Sepoy Mutiny', it
was a revoit against the British Government. Lakshmibai too
joined that mutiny in 1858, after she had beoomethelRaniof Jhansi.
What is caiied the First
War of Independence?
When Lakshmibai was bom in Benaras, the wise
ones said she wouid become a queen. iHer parents,
Moropant Tambe and Bhagirathibai named her
Manikamika after the river Ganga. iHer mother toid her
many stories from the Ramayana and the Mahabharatha and Menu, as she was
caiied, was very happy. Unfbrtunateiy Bhagirathibai died ali of a sudden when Manu
was oniy 4. Moropant Tambe moved to a piece caiied Bithur. There he worked for Baji
Rao ii, who had once been the Peshwa. 'Peshwa' was the title given to the Maratha
mier. Manu was not sad for iong. She quickiy made friends
with the boys. Nana Sahib and Tantia Tope. Nana Sahib
was Baji Rao's adopted son. With them, she ieamed to ride
and shoot. She aiso went to schooi, aithough in those days
giris were not taught to read and write. She was caiied as
'Chhabiii'- the sweet one - by everyone, inciuding
Who were it/Ian u's
Why did lier father
nnove to Bithur?
Because of her charm and wit, Gangadhar Rao, the king of Jhansi, married her
after his first wife, Ramabai had died chiidiess. When Gangadhar Rao married Manu,
she was oniy 15 and she was a chiid herself. The bride was given a new name,
Lakshmibai, Rani of Jhansi. The peopie of Jhansi weicomed Lakshmibai into their
hearts and she loved them too.
Soon, the people of J hansi were thrilled to know that their
king at last had an heir. Yes, Lakshmibai had given birth to a
baby boy in 1851 .But this
heir - a person with
legal right to the
at last - finally
heartbroken -feel extremely sad
joy and happiness did not
last as the baby died after
three months and the
people were heartbroken.
In those days, it was common for the rulers to adopt if they did
not have children. So the king, Gangadhar Rao chose five year-old Anand Rao, his
cousin's child, to be his adopted son. On the eve of the adoption, on November 19,
1853, a colourful ceremony was held and Anand Rao was renamed Damodar Rao
Gangadhar. The British were infomried of the adoption by the king who told them that
his queen, Lakshmibaii would rule Jhansi until the boy grew up. Soon after he had
made the adoption, the peril began with the death of Gangadhar Rao. The Governor
General Lord Dalhousie announced that he was taking over Jhansi, since the British
did not accept an adopted child as a legal heir to the throne. This was only a clever
plan on the part of the British to annex, ortake over the land with force and cunning.
This clever way of acquiring new territories for their Empire was called the
Doctrine of Lapse. Thafs what they used now. If an Indian ruler died without a natural
heir, the British simply took over his or her kingdom. The kingdom or state "lapsed" to
the British. Lakshmibai was determined not to give up,
and said , "I will not give up Jhansi." However all her efforts
became futile and she wept alone in her room the whole
night. She was only nineteen years old! She decided to
leave the fort as ordered by the British, and went to live in a
palace In the town with Damodar, her son. The British
began to govem Jhansi.
ceremony- a formal
peril - danger
empire - a group of
countries ruled by one
In the palace, lakshmibai led a quiet life. She taught Damodhar to fence and
ride, read and writer. Even then, she did not stop writing to the British for justice.
Three years passed without any disruption. The year 1857 arrived. The British
occupied all of India and their armies were full of Indian soldiers. Not everybody,
including the sepoys, was happy. They were very hurt because their officers had
asked them to grease the new cartridges to be used in
the rifles with fat from pigs and cows in order to
smoothen the firing of the bullets.
India has always been a multi-cultural country.
The Muslims did not touch pork. The Hindus did not ^
grease - apply oil / fat
cartridges - tubes with
gun powder and bullets
rifles - long guns
smoothen - make easy
pork - meat of a pig
touch beef. Though they already faced many' Who came to the Rani's aid?
problems, this was the worst one. . On a hot summer
day in May, sepoys of the Bengal Army in Meerut '^^^ ^
attacked their British officers and some officers were killed. The Sepoy mutiny had
begun! As the news spread across the central and the northern India, thousands of
soldiers turned against their British officers. Very soon, the mutiny spread to Jhansi.
The British were helpless to control the mutineers. They appealed to Lakshmibai to
advise her soldiers to return quietly to their camps. It was then that she decided to join
the rebellion- her war for independence had begun, /^where did Lakshmibai and the^
- others move to?
First of all she dug up all the piles of
ammunition that had been hidden secretly and set \ j
up two new factories to manufacture rifles and swords. Thousands, including women
were trained. She had a strong and loyal amriy, headed by both men and women -
Khuda Baksh, Moti Bai, Dost Khan and Kashi Bai.
Her army was 15,000 strong. Lakshmibai was
galloping from one place to another on horseback
with her son, Damodar on the pillion, to supervise
all the activities. She became one of the toughest
rulers of Jhansi!
The job was given to the General, Sir Hugh
Rose to attack Jhansi. Rose's men reached Jhansi. Encouraged by Lakshmibai the
two best gunners Ghulam Gaus Khan and Khuda Baksh fired furiously at the
attackers. The people inside the fort were happy to know that Lakshmibai's childhood
- large scale
- moving fast
- very large gun
- run after
friend Tantia Tope had arrived with Peshwa Nana Sahib's army to help her. But
Rose's army was highly disciplined in fighting. Tantia Tope was forced to push back to
a place called Kalpi, 1 70 kms away. The English cannons blasted a huge hole in the
fort wall through which the British army entered into the fort.
It was a terrible fight. Even though nearly 5000 of Lakshmibai's soldiers were
killed, the British could not catch Lakshmibai as she had escaped with Damodar to
Kalpi. Accompanied by about 350 people, she rode for twenty four hours continuously
until she caught up with Tantia Tope in Kalpi. Rose chased them and scored one more
point for his side. Meanwhile Rao Sahib Baji Rao's nephew joined Tantia Tope and
Lakshmibai. All three went to Gwalior to seek support from Scindia of Gwalior.
Though Scindia was on the British side, his
soldiers deserted him and supported Lakshmibai
to fight against the British.
She gained fame far and wide and she
asserted, "We must prepare ourselves for another
onslaught." However Rose was back with more men and more arms, waiting outside
the Gwalior Fort. Once again there was a terrible battle. Lakshmibai sat on her horse,
holding the reins between herteeth and a sword in each hand. Her eyes glittered with
fire and her swords caught the sunlight when she fought bravely, killing one after
another. But on the third day, she was hit by a shot from an unknown soldier. She fell at
Kotah ki Sarai near Gwalior. She was twenty three.
Her soldiers huddled together in shock. She whispered with her last breath,
"Give my jewels to my soldiers and look after little Damodar." The moment Lakshmibai
died, the Peshwa army lost heart and the Sepoy Mutiny came to an end. The history of
India is full of stories of the brave. But Lakshmibai is probably the most famous Indian
women to have defied the British.
- say firmly
- say softly
- refuse to obey
LET US REMEMBER:
What was Rani Lakshmibai named as a baby? Why?
Who were Manu's friends in Bithur? What did she learn there?
What was she fondly called?
Why did Gangadhar Rao choose Manu as his queen? What name did he give her?
Why did Gangadhar Rao adopt a son?
What was the Doctrine of Lapse? Why did the British evolve it?
What did the Rani of wlhansi tell the police officer?
Why were Indian soldiers unhappy with their British officers?
How did Rani Lakshmibai prepare for the First War of Independence?
[include her army, her loyal generals, herfrienasj l^ imes]
Who fought her? What happened in the War? How did she die? [4 lines]
[include Kalpi and Gwalior]
What did she say before she died?
Let us know the new words better :
A. Match the following words with their meanings given:
1 . violent attack
B. Choose the opposites of the words given:
1 . charm
C. Fun with words:
Try to find the hidden words in this maze:
A few clues:
+ rise against
+ make easy,
+ apply oil, fat
LET US UNDERSTAND : (Tick the right answer)
1. This story is about
a) a kingdom b) a brave queen
2. That she iearnt to ride, shoot, read and write along with the boys speaks of
a) her rebeiiious nature b) her wide interests
3. That Rani Lakshmibai said "I will not give up Jhansi" shows her
a) patriotism b) selfishness
4. Her preparation for the 1^ War of Independence speaks of her
a) rudeness b) determination
5. That she led a muiticultural armyof men and women shows her
a) aggression b) spirit and commitment
6. That Lakshmibai's childhood firiends supported her, means that
a) she was loyal and good b) she requested them
7. That she travelled 24 hours at a stretch with her child on her back, speaks of
a) herdynamism and bravery b) herdesire to escape.
8. Her last words reveal
a) her generous spirit b) her weakness
LET US UNDERSTAND:
1. Discuss with your friends (In small groups)
This is a roadmap. The sign board
at every point gives certain incidents
that happened in the life of the Rani of
Jhansi. Each of these places reveals
one aspect of her personality. Discuss
and share your views with the class:
end of the road
(Small Group Activity) SHARE IN CLASS Are there women in your locality, who
have overcome obstacles after great sacrifice?
LET US LEARN- Transitive an din transitive Verbs:
Read the following sentences:
1 . Sam eats mangoes. What does Sam eat? 'mangoes'
2. Valli kicked the ball. What did Valli kick? 'the baii'
The words 'mangoes' and the 'bali' are the objects of the verbs 'eate' and 'kicked.
The verbs which have objects are called Transitive Verbs'. Now, read these
1 . The sun shines brightly.
The sun shines... WHAT? No answer
2. Water boils at 100X.
Water boils... WHAT? No answer.
The verbs 'shines' and 'boils' do not have objects. Hence they are called
Say whether the highlighted verbs in the following sentences are transitive or
1. Please, pass the salt - .
2. Don't wait here - .
3. You miisf obey elders - .
4. Stars twinkle at night - .
LET US UNDERSTAND :
Only 'transitive verbs' have a receiver of the actions. They also have
Look at these sentences;
What do these two sentences have in common?
The porter pulied a troiley
A troiiey was puiled by the porter.
The above two sentences have a similar meaning.
Each sentence begins with a subject.
When the noun in the subject's place is the person or thing, doing the action, the verb
is in "active" form.
When the noun in the subject's place is the person or thing, not doing the action, the
verb is in "passive" form.
Not the Doer
Active Voice Passive Voice
Discuss in pairs and say whetiier tiie underiined verbs are in active or
1. They sing songs in the assembly.
2. Anotice wassenf by the manager.
3. You gave him your pen
4. IHe Aias built a house in his native place ^^i
5. The parcel was opened secretly. ^31
Foxexampie: They sing songs in the assembly' tells us that ^i'
'The subject and the doer' are the one and the same; hence it is in active voice.
'A notice was sent by the manager' tells us that
The 'subject' is 'a notice' but the 'doer' is 'the manager', hence it is in passive voice.
WORK IN SIVIALL GROUPS:
Go titrough the text and pick out the verbs given in active or passive forms;
For example: choose - active voice
was called - passive voice
INDIVIDUAL / PAIR WORK:
Directions: Match Column A with Column B, and make sentences;
The National flag
The flag song
is filled with gaiety
is presided over by the principal
are seen in the sky
Note: You will learn about the conversion of Active Voice into Passive Voice and
Passive Voice into Active Voice in higher classes.
Collect information and pictures of your favourite leader/inspirational person from
books and magazines; Write a paragraph or an essay, adding pictures to it and
present it to your class .
TO INDIA - MY NATIVE LAND
Henry Louis Vivian Derozio
In preparation :
This is the outpouring of a twenty year old poet, at a time
when India was just awakening to the need for freedom
from the British.
What do you feel, about being Indian? What linlcs do you
have with this land? ^[ikik^'
My country! In your days of glory past
A beauteous halo circled round your brow.
And worshipped as a deity you were...
Where is that glory, where that reverence now?
Your eagle pinion is chained down at last
And grovelling in the lowly dust are you;
Your minstrel has no wreath to weave for you
Save the sad story of your misery
Well - let me dive into the depths of time,
And bring from out of the ages that have rolled
A few small fragments of those wrecks sublime,
Which human eyes may never more behold:
And let the guerdon of my labour be
My fallen country! One kind wish from you!
halo - A ring of light around
beauteous - beautiful
deify- image of the divine
pinion - tip of a bird's wing
minstrel - musician, poet
groveling - crawling on the
lowly - humble, not high
wracks - damages
wreath - flowers garlanded in
a circler shape
sublime - something high,
guerdon - reward of some kind
Note on the poet
IHenry Louis Vivian Derozio [1809 - 1831] was partly of European descent.
But he considered himself an Indian, and felt deeply for the freedom of this country. As
a young teacher at Calcutta, he deeply influenced many people who took part in
India's freedom struggle. IHe loved teaching - he wrote to his students:
Expanding like the petals of young flowers,
I watch the gentie opening of your minds...
LET US REMEMBER:
Whom is the poet addressing?
How did the country seem to the poet in the past?
i-iow does the poet view the country at present?
i^*1 ^4*1 fti'1 v-^^^uil^l
Whom does the word 'minstrei' refer to?
Why does the poet say 'your minstrei has no wreath to weave for you'?
What do the 'smaii finagments' signify?
What does the poet expect from the country?
LET US UNDERSTAND :
Discuss in smail groups and share your answers in class.
What do you thinic the theme of the poem is?
Why does the poet feei so distressed by what is happening to his country?
'Thy eagle pinion is chained down af /as/ -Expiain the significance of pinion [wings]
'And worshipped as a deity you wen©' What is referred to as a 'deit/7 Why?
Add rhyming words to the following words
dark - most -
thrill - dew -
LET US UNDERSTAND:
Explain with reference to the context
'Your minstrel has no wreath to weave for you
Save the sad story of your misery'
'A few small fragments of those wrecks sublime,
Which human eyes may never more behold'
LET US WRITE - a paragraph on the poet's concern over his country
Collect information from your friends to fill up this graphic organizer.
What would you want our India to be?
Write a report or a paragraph on 'A Vision For Our Country'
I India 1
AFTER THE STORM
What do you do, when you feel very troubled about situations around you?
Here is what one group of children did.
The storm raged all night. Lightning crackled and the wind howled like a
demon. Saruli cowered under the covers and clung to her motherwhen she heard the
thunder. A peculiar crack-crack-SNAP, followed by a tremendous crash, as though a
giant had fallen to the ground.
"What is that?" she asked her mother.
"The trees," her mother replied. "The wind is blowing
lofty - high
foraging - collecting
food for cattle
wiry - thin and strong
"The trees!" Saruli was shocked. The wind was strong, very strong. But was it
powerful enough to knock down those enormous pines — so straight and tall?
The next morning she saw it for herself. Row upon row of the lofty pines lay
stretched helplessly on the ground. Saruli was stunned. Half the jungle seemed bare.
Most of the people from the small hill village were there, foraging for branches and
dragging them away. But Saruli, a wiry girl of thirteen, stood there stunned.
Gripped with fear Saruli was thinking of the barren hillside across the valley.
How desolate it looked! A real contrast to the forest near their village, which was full of
fresh grass and shrubs. Suppose... suppose all the trees fell down ... wouldn't the
forest disappear? With an effort she dismissed these thoughts and began to collect
wood. Fuel was always an important need. Saruli gathered a large bundle. On her
way back, she passed Diwan Singh's house. The old man was seated outside. "You
want some wood, uncle?" she asked. Without waiting for an answer she dropped part
of her bundle in one corner of the paved courtyard.
"So you have been to the forest, girl?"
"Yes, uncle, lots of trees fell down last night.
Old Diwan Singh was the headman of her village. ''It was to be
expected," he said slowly. The trees have been totally hollowed by the
resin-tappers." Saruli's brown eyes opened wide. ''I wondered how so
many trees had fallen down". Diwan Singh said, "First they only made
one cut on the trees to tap resin. Now they keep on making gashes
till the trees are utterly drained. Even a moderately strong wind can
below them over, they are so dry." "Can't... can't someone stop them?'
Saruli asked, homfied. Diwan sighed. "\NY\o can stop them, girl? The
contractors are rich, influential people. They pay a lot of money to tap the
Saruli got up go home. As she stood up, she glanced at Diwan Singh's strange
nursery. He was growing saplings. Not the baby pines which sprang up themselves in
the rains, but shoots of oak and deodar- the native trees of the hills. Diwan Singh told
Saruli, 'When I was a boy this was a forest of oak and deodar. The British Government
cut them down and planted pines."
But, Why?" Saruli had asked.
resin : a substance
got from the sap of a
"Because pine trees can be tapped for resin and resin has many uses. But they
forgot that oaks bring rain and trap the water. Pines dry out the land."
It was a holiday for school. Saruli took her cow to graze In the forest. The sight
of the fallen trees-trunks was depressing. Many of the other village children were
there too, with their goats and cows. "Come and play hide and seekl" Jaman called.
But Saruli shook her head. She sat on a rock, thinking and thinking. How could they
save their forest?
'What is the matter?" Jaman asked after a while.
"I am scared," she replied, after a short pause.
"Suppose another storm comes along and all the trees
are blown down. What will we do then?"
"The contractors pay money to the Forest
Department to tap the trees. They are allowed to do it,"
said Jaman in a low voice.
But Saruli was rushing to the nearest pine tree. There she found several
gashes which had gone dry. At the end of one, there was a conical tin cup, into which
the sticky resin fell, drop by drop. She wrenched off the tin cup and threw it away.
"That is what we can do!" She cried triumphantly. Jaman put some clay to seal the
The other children gathered around curiously. Saruli cried excitedly. "Come
on, help to save our forest!"
She raced around pulling the tin cups off the trees. And Jaman followed with
the clay. The others joined in enthusiastically.
A week passed. The little group managed to remove the tin containers from a
large portion of the jungle. Then, one morning, four men entered the forest to collect
resin. Saruli's heart thudded suddenly. The showdown had come. But she had to stay
calm. She could hear their muttered exclamations of surprise which turned into anger
to find the trees devoid of the resin containers. I thudded: beat loudly
Finally, they came up to the children who were swarming up around a tree. "Do
you know who has done this?" one of the men demanded. Saruli had seen him
around. He was called Lai Singh.
The children looked at each other, not knowing what to say. Then Saruli
jumped down from the /cafe/ tree. "We did it," she said.
"Wha-at?" the man seemed unable to understand.
"Yes," Saruli said quietly. "We threw away the containers".
"You brats! How dare you!" Lai Singh exploded. His companions swore and
muttered angrily. "Now we will have to put them again," Lai Singh continued. "Don't
you dare touch the trees now?" exploded : words came out in a loud burst
He produced a chisel-like tool and began to scrape off the mud plaster the
children had applied.
"Stop!" Saruli cried, hurling herself at him. He pushed her aside roughly but
Jaman and the others joined in too.
"Run, Radha!" Saruli cried. ''Get
help from the village. We have got to
save the forest!"
Radha ran fast. But the taller
man caught up quickly. He was about
to grab her. Suddenly, a jeep jerked to
an abrupt halt. "What is going on?" a
voice spoke from inside.
Lai Singh sprang forward
eagerly. Jaman followed. Then his eye fell on what was written on the number plate.
The D.F.O. Sirl" he muttered nervously.
The District Forest Officer jumped out of the jeep. One of the men had Radha
by the arm was gesticulating and pointing to the trees. Radha looked temfied!
'What is the meaning of all this?" the D.F.O. asked.
"She is the ring leader," Lai Singh said accusingly.
"Sin we are only trying to save our forest!" Saruli said vehemently.
Taken aback by Saruli's impassioned outburst, the D.F.O. followed her to the
edge of the forest. He stared at the fallen tree-trunks and frowned.
"It is the resin-tapping. Sir," Saruli repeated. ''If all the trees fall down, what will
impassioned : deeply felt
But the D.F.O. was lost in thought "I shall have to think about it," he said finally.
"Our job is to presen/e the forests. Tell your contractor to talk to me."
Lai Singh's eyes almost fell out with shock, but the children clapped gleefully.
The D.F.O. got into his jeep and drove away.
gleefully : happily
A month went by. The resin-tappers did not come again and the children
continued to remove the containers. They had almost finished when the first monsoon
showers came down. That evening when Saruli went home, Diwan Singh called out to
her, "Girl, the rains have come. "Let's plant the deodhars."
■^j&sk -^ ■■t'm.
She smiled happily up at him. Just then, they
sawafamiiiarjeep. "D.F.O. Sir!" said Diwan Singh.
The D.F.O. got off the jeep and smiied at
Saruii. "Keep it up/ he patted her baclc. The resin
tappers wiii nottnoubieyou again."
Than l< you, Sir, than l< you!" chanted a chorus
of voices. The jeep sped down the road. A breeze
rustied through the trees maicing them sound iilce a
distant waterfali. Saruii sighed happily. They wouid
continue to hear that sound. They had achieved their
goai. They had saved the forest.
Nothing wouid destroy their forest now.
LET US REMEMBER:
Discuss with your Mend and complete the sentences: (Pair work)
1 . Saruii clung to her mother when
2. Saruii was stunned to see
3. Suppose. . . suppose ali the trees feil down
4. "it was to be expected", Diwan Singh said slowiy
5. ''Oai<s bring rain and trap water, Pines
6. Saruii found severai gashes which
7. The tin cups were wrenched and thrown off and
8. 'Now, we wiii have to put them again, ''Lai Singh continued, ".
9. Tes, Sir, see aii the trees are faiiing down. Once
10. "What are you up to now? 'Diwan Singh aslced. "_
LET US UNDERSTAND:
Using this frame, match Saruii's feeling [indicated by the numbers] with the line
that communicates it. [Small group work] ^_^
that they should put an end I c I
to this (resin tapping).
They had saved the forest.
^that the contractors got resin
by making gashes on the trees. I I
to know that the wind couid
blow down the trees.
her friends to help her put a
stop to the unlawful tapping.
and wrenched off the tin cups and slapped clay on the gashes,
how desolate the forest would be, without the trees!
when she saw that many trees had fallen down.
Write a paragraph on how Saruli saved the forest. [SmafI Group Work]
Prepare a play, enacting the incidents In the story with your friends,
NOTE TO THE TEACHER
In this unit, an attennpt has been made to mal<e the students aware of the
importance of coexisting with all species on earth, especially the colourful and sweet-
singing birds, and the ferocious, magnificent tiger. The prose text Our Winged
Friends is an excerpt from Zai Whitaker's biography of Dr. Salim Ali, Salim AH for
Schools. It enlightens the students on different types of birds and their strange and
unique behaviours, and also encourages them to take up bird watching as a hobby.
There is a poem by the famous poet, Laurence Dunbar, given as extra reading, which
would sensitize children to the deeper dimensions of freedom, using the metaphor of
a caged bird.
This unit presents a frame to maximize active learning. There are many
language exercises like semantic mapping, which effectively facilitate students in
their learning of the language, and can be used to motivate them. Students are given
tips for essay writing which would enhance their writing skills.
The second part of this unit has a poem A Tiger in tfie Zoo, by poet Leslie
Norris, which evocatively portrays the raw feelings of a caged tiger in the zoo.
Children learn to respect animals' rights and their freedom. The questions asked here
help them to reflect on this issue.
The Supplementary Unit is an evocative story from Zimbabwe, The Anteater
and tlie Dassie written by Lakshmi Mukundan. The backdrop of this story is a
conversation between a boy called Tendai and his grandmother. The story which
features a race between two friends, a pangolin and a dassie, communicates how
smartness can win over strength.
The activities given help the child to read, to comprehend and to interact in
small and large groups. The grammar learnt in this section is Reported speech. Rules
regarding Reported speech are given with examples. Focus is mainly on Statements
and Imperatives. Formal letter writing is included in this unit to enable the students to
correspond with officials when necessary. Familiarize the students with the format as
labelled. But please focus more on the content of letters.
There is a suggested extension activity on debating and two projects
have also been given.
OUR WINGED FRIENDS
Excerpt of Zai Whitaker's 'Salim Ali For Schools'
Dr. Salim Ali, the Birdman of India, is one of the world's most famous
ornithologists. He made many discx>veries about Indian
birds, and wrote the "Book of Indian Birds", which has
become a classic. He fought for the preservation of many
important forests, including the BharatpurBIrd Sanctuary
in Rajasthan, and Silent Valley in Kerala.
or-ni-tho-lo-gists: people who study birds J3 ^Logo of www.blrdlng.in^
also a part of a project that helps Irula adivasis of
Read and enjoy Have you watched birds around you? People have done so
for centuries! Birds seem to represent the spirit of freedom, because they roam the
skies. Birds have also been hunted, used as messengers and caged. Here is a poem
by a great Black American poet, about a caged bird.
I know why the caged bird sings, ah me,
When his wing is bruised and his bosom sore.
When he beats his bars and would be free;
It Is not a carol of joy or glee,
But a prayer that he sends from his heart's deep core,
But a plea, that upward to Heaven he flings -
I know why the caged bird sings.
Paul LaufBncB Dunbar
: hurt; bosom : chest; bars : cage
: sacred song flings : throws up plea : request
Many years ago in China, the government
decided to W\\\ sparrows. They thought spanx>ws
destroyed crops. But when ali the span*ows were Idiled,
there was a huge expiosion in the popuiation of insect
pests. The Chinese had forgotten that though sparrows
eat grain, they aiso eat insects- many of which are pests
that are the main enemy of the farmer, in the same way, the fishermen gnash their
teeth at crocodiies because they eat up fish especiaiiy the type we malce cunries out
of. So, iike birds, they may do a bit of harm to gnash: to ciash the teeth in anger
humans, but aiso a whole iotof good.
IHave you observed anything
unique about any bird?
Write it down
more than 200 miiiion years oid, on this pianet!
Though disiilced, crocodiies piay an important
roie in wetiand environments. They heip Iceep
the baiance in the compiex web of iife in
freshwater and estuarine ecosystems.
Birds have ioveiy caiis and songs, they don't bite and most of them are
beautiflii to ioolcat. The songs and coiours of birds have inspired great poetry, music
and art. But birds were not put on earth just for our enjoyment. They are one of the
most criticai or important iinlcs in the compiex web of iife that we caii the environment.
They are master poiiinaters who transfer poiien from piece to piece. Many seeds do
not germ inateuniess they are first eaten and digested by birds, sotheyarewonderfiii
seed carriers too. This way, birds heip in the growth of forests. Every bird piays a
unique part in its habitat. Some birds iilce iiving
near streams, some in trees and in cities. But
many species of birds are perpiexed and aianmed
: to sprout
: animai's home
that human beings seem to encroach [intrude] upon their habitats.
When we greedily chop down old forest trees« for example, bole-
nesting birds become homeless. The Malabar hombill, one of our
most spectacular and interesting birds, nests in boles of old, tall trees
in evergreen forests. The male horn bill 'locks' his wife and babies in
the nest by covering the opening with mud. He leaves a small kitchen i^vaavan ]
- doorway through which he feeds with his family insects, lizards, ^^^
snakes and other delicious treats.
spectacular : very impressive
bole : tree trunk
This way, the chicks are safe from predators but get their dally meals and
snacks on time. But old forest trees are becoming rare. The smugglers are cutting
them down for their valuable wood; others are clearing forests for
the kind of 'development' we like: crowded cities, dangerous
highways, bigger and faster cars, more pollution. Thus we
destroy not just birds and other wild creatures, but ourselves as
well. It's kind of silly to be chopping down your own home, isnt it?
What are some of
the reasons for
cutting the trees?
predators: animals that kill and eat other animals
We know so much more today about our
birds, largely because of Dr. Salim All and his
associates. We know about the behaviour of different
species: we know their special calls or the song each of
them sings. We also know the places they are likely to be
found or their distribution. For example, the tern, which
looks like an origami [Japanese art of folding papers so
as to make different forms] project, is a beach and ocean
freak, and wouldn't be found In forests. The star singer, the shama, however, sticks to
its thick forest home. i-_ , ~ ~ \ 7
freak : wild enthusiast
So much is still to be discovered: both for increasing our
knowledge as well as to help conserve certain rare species.
Because of the criminai overuse of pesticides, some birds
are becoming rare. Can you guess why? The chemicals in
pesticides 'thin' the egg shell, which breaks before the baby
is ready to hatch. Many countries have banned the use of
certain pesticides which are dangerous to birds. In India,
many birds which were once common in certain areas, are
disappearing we need to find out why, and do something about it - urgently. If you are
interested in birds, you too can help in the very important effort to study and conserve
birds. You can do this even if you're a young student-in fact ail the better, as you can be
more active, and cover more miles than the older bird watchers. Unlike many
hobbies, this is not an expensive one, and can be done anywhere. You may live near
the sea or in the mountains or near a forest or even in the middle of the city. The good
news about birds is that they are always around!
banned : prohibited
if you can get a pair of binoculars, great. But a pair
of young eyes would suffice. Keep a small
notebook and pencil or pen to write down every
observation maticuiousiy, starting with the date,
time and iocation of the birds you see. And, of
course, you need a reference book, and the best
one is The Book of indian Birds'. Make a bird list every time you go on a bird walk. As
you become more and more Interested try and find other bird watchers you can go out
with and leann from. Most Indian cities and even small towns, now have a bird
watching club. You can join one and pursue your hobby. You will soon be abie to
identily the vagaries of different birds. If you [suffice : be enough ^
are interested enough, you could well be meticulously : carefully
vagaries : variety in behaviour
anotherSalim All. Happy Bird WatchingI ^^^^^ , ^ ^^^.^^^
LET US REMEMBER:
1 . Why did the government of China decide to l^ill sparrows?
2. What happened when they did so?
3. Why do fishemnen get angry with crocodiles?
4. What have birds inspired?
5. Why are birds important in the web of life?
6. IHow do we icnow so much about birds today?
7. Why would we need to know more about birds?
8. How does the pled Horn bill feed his young?
9. What does the writer feel that every young person can do? Write three
LET US UNDERSTAND: [Discuss and share in snnall groups!]
1 . Why do we need to coexist with other species on this planet?
2. In what ways have we encroached upon the habitats of birds?
3. Why does the author compare chopping trees to chopping down your
Do you know
The Arctic Tern travels twenty to
thirty thousand kms. annually!
Have a debate in class
Is there a problem if a species dies out?
If you are a bird watcher
Summarize what you would do if you become a bird-watcher.
LET US REVISE:
Choose appropriate antonyms of the words from the list given below and fill
up the corresponding boxes.
f , pleased 2. bored
excited I I prey I I triumph
3, predator 4. guest 5. defeat
This passage speaks of where some birds live - their habitat, and suggests that
we can find out more about the birds we observe.
Tabulate species and habitats, I ike this example given below:
Fields & scrub
LET US DO : Semantic Mapping
What are all the words that come to your mind when you think of the word, bird?
Let's try putting them down like this.
In how many ways can you
classify these words? See below!
Impact of man
Species & Groups
: beak, wings
: nuts, insects
We can classify these words because the mind moves in all directions.
The mind also classifies words to make meaning.
Mapping these meanings through words is called Semantic Mapping. A set
of words related in meaning are said to belong to the same semantic field.
Eg. : Gricl<et (a) fielder (b) bowler (c) stumps
Write four words that belong to the same semantic field for the words given below:
1. space (a).
2. business (a).
3. technology (a).
4. occupation (a).
5. factory (a).
Semantic mapping is a visual strategy for vocabulary expansion. By displaying in
categories, words related to one another, we can see the relationship our thoughts
have, and that helps us to make meaning out of them.
TRYTHIS: Do a Semantic Map of the word 'nature'.
Definitions of the word NATURE
What NATURE does
Now, let's do a map summarizing the chapter.
Birds and Us
■ I DISCOVERr
Writing an Essay on a Given Topic
Essays generally have three parts - introduction, the body (information, argument,
narration, description) and the conclusion.
(i) Give an interesting introduction. It should state clearly what one is going to
(ii) Organize the matter (main theme) in 2-3 paragraphs; in such a way that one
paragraph leads smoothly to the next.
(iii) Give an effective conclusion.
Here is a short essay about PROJECT TIGER. Study how it is organized into
paragraphs, each conveying a specific issue.
Introduction of the Essay
The tiger is a magnificent and ferocious creature which inspires fear and awe
in us. It is our national symbol. But our forests are devoid of the roar of tigers now.
Once there were 40,000 tigers in India. Do you know how many tigers we have in
our country now? Why do you think the number has decreased alarmingly in the past
Body of the Essay
The tiger is a symbol of wilderness and the well-
being of the ecosystem. By conserving and saving
tigers, the entire ecosystem is conserved.
Origin of Project Tiger :
In 1947, therewereabout 15,000 tigers in India. Butdue to continuous hunting
and various other reasons, the population of Indian tigers came down to just 1827 in
1972. As the Indian tiger was in danger of becoming extinct, in 1973, the
Govemmentset up the Project Tiger.
Sanctuaries & their benefits:
Under this, some of the major national parks including Corfoett, Kaziranga,
Mudumalai and Bandipur came under the Government's control. A ban on killing
tigers was also imposed and whoever violated this was subjected to severe penalties
and Imprisonment. This saw a dramatic increase In the tiger population which stood
at 3,642 in 2002.
Conclusion of the Essay
Thanks to the Project Tiger, our national animal has been saved from
extinction. So let's pledgeto support 'Project Tiger*.
Now attempt an essay on the
following topic using the format that you
have just learnt;
"Preservation of Forests"
Do you know?
According to the Chinese
calendar the year 2010 is the year of
the Golden Tiger, which is between
You have learnt to write personal / friendly letters in standard VII. Let us here
leam to write a Formal Letter Fomnal letters are written for official or commercial
purposes. Formal letters must be brief and formal in tone. The different parts of the
letter have been labelled for you.
study the letter to the Director of Vandalur Zoological Park asking him to take
charge of an abandoned tiger cub.
No.6, River View Colony,
Chennai (Pin code)
25 February, 2011.
Address of the
The Director ^
Chennai (Pin code)
Body or content
of the letter
I am living in an area which is near a small forest. A couple of days ago, on
my way home from school, I found a tiger cub among the bushes. Though I was
scared, I took him home and fed him. I made a small cage with bamboo sticks
and have kept him there safely. He is very restless. I think he is missing his mother
and his natural home.
I wish you would come and take charge of the tiger cub as soon as possible.
Address on the Envelope :
Vandalur Zoological Park,
Complete the reply by the Director of Vandalur Zoological Park.
The Director, 28 February, 2011
Vandalur Zoological Park,
No.1 , River View Colony,
We your letter. I would like for
your It is a good Keep it up. We assure you that
Address on the Envelope
Write a letter to the Commissioner of your area complaining about the in
sanitary conditions there.
DO AND SEE :
Read this short poem about hunting.
Hunt for knowledge
Hunt for adventure
But hunt not the tiger
Or any other creature!
Slogan on saving tigers:
Save the tigers
before they are
Project: Write small poems or slogans to help save tigers. Send them to the
PROJECT TIGER authorities. They would publish them to create awareness
among the public.
GRAMMAR - LET US LEARN : Direct and Indirect speech
Baskar : Hello, Sara. What are you doing tomorrow?
Sara : Hello, Baskar! I am going to meet my grandmother tomorrow.
What did Sara say?
Sara said that she was going to see her grandmother the next day.
We often have to inform what people say to others. In order to do this we use.
Direct (or) Quoted speech
(or) Indirect (or) Reported speech
Direct speech / Quoted speech
Saying exactly what someone has said is called Direct Speech. Here what a
person says appears within quotation marks (" ") and should contain the exact words.
Eg. Naveen said, 1 am very busy".
Indirect speech / Reported speech
When we hear a person speak and convey it to a third person, we use Indirect
Speech or Reported Speech.
Eg. Naveen said that he was very busy.
In Reported Speech, the TENSE usually changes. This is because when we
use Reported Speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because the
person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to
be in the past tense too.
"1 am going to the cinema", he said.
He said that he was going to the cinema.
Present Tense forms of the verbs in the Direct Speech change into their
immediate past forms in the Reported speech.
Harisaid, "1 wantto
buy a new bicycle."
Simple Past Tense
Hari said that he
wanted to buy a new
The clerk said, "My
Manager Is writing
The clerk said that his
Manager was writing
Shama said, "1 have
bought a cycle".
Past Perfect Tense
Shama said that she
had bought.a cycle.
Simple Past Tense
Murali said, "Sarath
came at night".
Past Perfect Tense
Murali said that Sarath
had come at night.
(a) If the Direct Speech states a universal truth or a habitual fact, then the
tense does not change.
He said, The earth moves round the sun."
He said that the earth moves round the sun.
The teacher said 'Honesty is the best policy".
The teacher said that honesty is the best policy.
(b) If the Reporting verb is in the present tense, the verb pattern remains
unchanged in the Reported form. (Reporting verbs are words which come before the
He says, "I am happy"
He says that he is happy."
Changes in Pronouns:
Pronouns in the first person in the Direct Speech are changed to third person
pronouns in the reported speech.
Direct Speech : She said, "1 have done rny homework."
Indirect Speech : She said that she had done her homework.
Modal verb forms also change:
may / can
might / could
should / would
: The teacher said , "Ashok will certainly pass"
: The teacher said that Ashok would certainly pass.
: My brother said, "I may go to Mumbai."
: My brother said that he might go to Mumbai.
Change in Time and Place words :
Words expressing nearness in Direct Speech change into words expressing
distance in indirect speech.
Direct Speech : He said, "Hari may come tomorrow".
Indirect Speech : IHe said that IHari might come the next day.
the next day
the previous day
the previous night
Reporting verbs need to be changed according to the different types of
sentences in the Direct speech.
In statements 'said' becomes told / stated
In commands / requests 'said', becomes commanded / ordered,
requested / pleaded
The Captain said, "Stand at ease."
Indirect Speech : The Captain ordered the soldiers to stand at ease.
Reporting of Statements
When reporting a statement, the conjunction 'that' can be used.
Omera said to the Rani, "I will talk to your sister."
Omera told Rani that she would talk to her sister.
Ramu said, "I shall be here this evening".
Ramu said that he would be there that evening.
Reporting Commands / Requests:
When reporting commands / requests, the verb takes the form of an infinitive
(to + verb).
"Leave this place", said the teacher to the boys.
The teacher ordered the boys to leave that place
Mohan said to Rita "Please give me a glass of milk".
Mohan requested Rita to give him a glass of milk.
LET US REPORT :
Change the following sentences into Indirect or Reported Speech
1 . "We are in some danger" said Miss Mebbin.
2. The weatherman said, "It may rain tomorrow."
3. The supervisor said to the man "Don't proceed with the work."
4. Vikram said, "Krishna, please lend me your book."
5. The captain said to his men, "Stand at ease."
6. IHe said "I am unable to come just now because I am ill".
7. The servant said, "I have boiled the milk."
8. Sita said, "I came to Chennai two months ago."
9. The man asked the counter clerk, "Please give me a ticket to Bangalore."
10. The mother said, "Balu, don't touch that live wire."
Conduct a small imaginary interview with Dr.Salim All about what motivated
him to study birds. Then reportthe interview in front of the class.
LET US PLAY :
Whisper a secret to your partner. The partner then tells the secret to the other
pupils in the class, using Reported Speech - Happy Reporting!
Do you know?
Many organizations have been set up to protect animals. One
such organization is PETA - People for the Ethical Treatment
Expand the abbreviation of this organization setup to protect animals.
A TIGER IN THE ZOO
- Leslie Norris
Have you been to a zoo? Which animals fascinated you the most? Do you
think the animals looked happy In their cage?
IHe stalks in his vivid stripes
The few steps of his cage,
On pads of velvet quiet,
In his quiet rage
He should be iuricing in shadow,
Sliding through long grass
Near the water hole
Where plump deer pass.
He should be snariing around houses
At the jungle's edge.
Baring his white fangs, his claws.
Terrorizing the village!
But he's locked in a concrete cell.
His strength behind bars,
Stalking the length of his cage,
He hears the last voice at night.
The patrolling cars.
And stares with his brilliant eyes
At the brilliant stars.
■I A \\\.
- stride, march
- causing great
- taking no
- showing the
- long, sharp
- long pointed
Leslie Norris (1921 - 2006) was a prize winning Welsh poet and short story
writer. Here he contrasts the pathetic state of a tiger in the zoo with the grandeur and
ferocityof a tigerin its natural habitat.
LET US REMEMBER:
Where does the tiger described in the
Translate the following words in Tamil
zoo - Lfl(5«a «rrL.rfle=e=rr6B)6U
service centre -
Where does the poet feel the tiger should be?
Whywould the tiger 'lurk in shadow'?
What would he do at the jungle's edge?
Why do you think the tiger 'ignores visitors' ?
What is the last sound that the tiger hears at night?
LET US UNDERSTAND: Answer the following qusstions.Discuss and filL
1 . Describe the tiger's natural habitat, as seen in the poem.
2. Pick out the words and phrases that describe the movements and actions of the
tiger at contrasting situations.
3. Bring out the difference in the meaning of the words underlined in the
And stares with his brilliant eyes
At the brilliant stars.
On pads of velvet quiet
In his quiet rage
4. What do you think the tiger feeis in the zoo?
5, Where would you lil^e to see the wiid animais - in a RQannp Facts about
naturai paric or in a zoo? Why? Tiger
Just iilce human finger
prints no two tigers have
Have a debate
Organize a ciass debate on the topic whether zoos are necessary. What is the
other aiternative to seeing wild animals?
Bring outthethemeof the poem in your own words in about 100 words.
LET US KNOW:
Similes are comparisons. Complete the simiies with the names of the animal.
As meek as a
As strong as a....
As stubborn as a
As clever as a....
As brave as a
As sly as a....
As proud as a
[peacock, cheetah, fox, mule, lamb, lion, ox, monkey}
SPEAKING SKILLS :
We love our freedom. Do you think we have any right to take an animal's
freedomaway? ^^9^'^""^^^ ''^'y^:'^::^-'^!:^^^^'^
THE ANTBATBR AND THE DASSIE
Adapted fromTales from Tendai's Grandmother' a collection of stories set in
Zimbabwe about tiie animals of Africa, by Laksiimi Mukundan.
Have you ever felt sad when your efforts do not end
up successfully? Do you sit and brood over it? IHave you
ever pondered on how you could use your own strengths
to be successful? Be smart like the Pangolin. Discover
and use your own strengths!
Tendal was helping his Grandmother to cook lunch outdoors. He was waiting
eagerly to eat the tasty sadza [maize grain] and stew when on their small radio they
heard the news bulletin. One news Item was about some African farmers who had
caught a scaly ant eater In their farmlands. They travelled In a group and presented It
to the President of Zimbabwe as a token of respect. The President then sent the
creature to the National Park where it was safely released into its natural world again.
Grandmother told Tendai that scaly /
anteaters were never harmed because they were
symbols of good luck. While they sat eating their
lunch, she narrated to Tendai
an amusing anteatertale.
Ascaly anteateronce lived near the Limpopo
river, which flows at the border between Zimbabwe
and Its Southern neighbour, South Africa. Pangolin
and little Dassie were friends and together explored
the bush, and tried to find interesting ways of
challenging each other with new games and races.
Pangolin Is another
name for the scaly anteater. It
breaks the mud with its long
claws and darts its long sticky
tongue deep inside to feast on
ants and termites.
If threatened a
pangolin would quickly roll up
into a scaly ball and wait for
the danger to pass away
They had a lot of fun together. Dassie would
take his friend to visit his colony and Pangolin admired
the intricate burrows and network of pathways built
between the rocks made by them.
On each of Pangolin's visits, Dassie had
observed that it was difficult for his heavy friend to
climb up and down among the rocks and pathways.
He himself was small and sleek and able to run along
easily. One day he had a splendid idea. He decided to
ask Pangolin to race against him down one of the
paths. He smiled a wily smile to himself because he
feltquite sure that he would wini
Dassie is an
African rat. It is also called
a 'rock rabbit', because it
lives and breeds among
rocks. A noisy and
sociable animal, the
dassie feeds on grasses
He called out to his friend, "I have a good idea for a new race. Let us climb to the
top ofthe kopje and mn down the main path that goes straight down. The one who can
reach level ground first will be the winner^. Pangolin cheerfully agreed since he loved
to compete, whether he won or lost.
Together they climbed to the very top ofthe kopje. Dassie's beady eyes shone
eagerly as he drew a line in the clay at the beginning ofthe path. They took positions at
the starting line, counted to three and set off, running asfast as the could. Little Dassie
soon drew ahead because this was the most familiar of paths to him. He could also
run faster than Pangolin who had to carry all his heavy, clattering scales along. When
they reached level ground, Dassie was the winner by a clear distance. Pangolin came
up puffing and panting, but happily hailed Dassie as the winner. The two friends then
had a good laugh together over the day's
contest. The next day, Pangolin returned to
visit his friend and Dassie challenged him to
the downhill race again. Pangolin agreed.
puffing & panting
smooth and shiny
But this time tlie scaiy one had a special gleam in
his eye which Dassie did not notice. After the third count,
they started racing down the siope to the ground once
more. Dassie ran as fast as his iegs couid carry him.
Suddeniy he was wondering what was roiiing quicldy
past him now? i-ie was Iseing overtaicen by a scaiy baii,
carried swiftiy down the siope by its own weight, it reached the piain iong before he
did, quite unhurt by the bumps aiong thf gieam - a sudden expression of emotion in ^
IHe couid hardiy beiieve his eyes. Dassie was very confused because he couid
not reaiiy understand what had happened, i-ie reached the finishing point and then
watched the bail unroiiing itseif.
Pangoiin straightened himseif
and got onto aii fours again, i-ie iaughed
deiightediy as he carefuiiy smoothed
his scaies bacic in piace with his iong
ciaws. Dassie iooiced on in amazement
The squirrei said to the mountainp If
i cant cany forests on my bacic, Neither can
i^lph Waido Emerson
Each of us has unique strengths i
and aslced, ''i-iow did you ever think of doing such a ciever and unusuai thing? The
scaiy anteater explained," After i iost the race yesterday, i remembered my father's
advice. I-ie always said that there is more than one way to do a thing. I^st night, I
thought very hard and realized that even if I could not run as fast as you, maybe I could
try curling up and rolling down faster. As you can see, the new idea worked very well
and I am the winner today!'
LET US REIMEMBER:
What is the news that Tendai heard?
Why was the scaly anteater never harmed?
Where did the anteater and the dassie live?
What did Pangolin and Dassie do?
Where would Pangolin and Dassie explore?
What would Dassie show his friend?
What had Dassie observed?
Why did Dassie smile to himself?
What did he tell his friend?
Why did Pangolin agree?
What had Pangolin thoughtabout, for the second race?
What did Dassie notice as he ran?
What had Pangolin's father advised him?
What did Pangolin understand about himself?
Animals and Us I
Identify the animals associated with the following phrases:
hot days of the year
an unbelievable story
to shed false tears
[like a chameleon, cock-and-bull story, crocodile tears, dog days]
Sharing jokes, puzzles and riddles is a good way to
practise English. Here are a few!
1 . A little girl asked her mother for ten aipees to give WT^ ^ ^1
an old woman in the park. Her mother was ^C*
touched by the child's kindness.
What occurs once in
a minute, twice in a
moment and never in
Ans.: The letter 'm'.
"There you are, my dear, but tell me, isn't the woman
able to work anymore?"
"Oh, yes", came the reply. "She sells sweets".
2. How do bees get to school? By School buzz.
3. Hunters, photographers as well as producers do this. What is it?
All three shoot.
Hunters shoot animals (unfortunately!) Film producers shoot films. What do
Work in pairs and narrate jokes, puzzles to each other.
Have you heard about Mowgli, Bagheera and the tiger Sher Khan. You would
find them in Rudyard Kipling's book 'The Jungle Book' Read and enjoy it.
Form groups and make a folder. Put in it all the information that you have
collected about tigers. Now use this information to make posters/slogans or write
essays /articles on the conservation of tigers.
NOTE TO THE TEACHER
Hope yourjourney this far with your students has been an adventure, perhaps
some times an uphill task, but always with its own rich rewards. This lesson The
Unforgettable Johnny focuses on learning difficulties, particularly dyslexia and how
teachers can make a tremendous difference to students with learning difficulties. You
can practice the dialogue, getting pupils to role play as Ishaan, Rajan and develop
more dialogues between other characters. Also note the structure of telephonic
conversation - how it begins, ends, how each person takes turns, asking and
answering, the use of short forms etc.
Reading aloud provides multiple sensory input, through the eyes, ears and
speech organs. During silent reading there is only visual memory but during reading
aloud there is in addition to visual memory, oral memory when we hear what we read
and muscular memory when our speech organs move. So use prose passages,
especially poems to enjoy their rhythm and rhyme. Not all students can speak
spontaneously but all can look at texts and read aloud, thus gaining self-confidence
and self esteem. So please make time for reading aloud.
The sensitive poem. Nine Gold Medals, by David Roth should appeal to our
sense of appreciation for the special children. The supplementary reading of Charles'
letter Dear God, This is Charles; can be followed up by getting your class to write
letters about their own issues. In teaching new words, the4 S's could be borne in mind
- how the word sounds, its pronunciation and stress, its spelling, it sense and also its
syntax-how it will occur in a sentence.
The information transfer exercises are life skill based. In real life we often have
to read tables, graphs and pie diagrams. Here only one sample is given. You can
make more such activities. The writing section focuses on paragraph writing with
emphasis on identifying topic sentences as a pre-exercise before writing them. You
can also get students to condense the supplementary reading passages. Finally,
after discussing excerpts from dyslexic children's letters, from Saraswati Kendra and
Ananya [Madras Dyslexia Association], you could get the students to reflect on their
learning styles, and also do a project on the scope of special education.
THE UNFORGETTABLE JOHNNY
Here are fourfamous people.
And here are a few facts about them.
Albert Einstein couldn't talk till the age of 4. He couldn't write
till the age of 9. His teachers thought that he was slow, and a
Thomas Alva Edison
Thomas Alva Edison, the Inventor of the electric bulb, was
thrown out of school when he was 1 2, because people thought that
he could'nt study I He was poor at Math, and had a difficulty with
Agatha Christie, the world famous writer of murder
mysteries, was educated at home. She had dysgraphia - a
difficulty with the written word. She dictated her novels!
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci was a great designer and artist of the 15th
century. It is said that he suffered from dyslexia [he wrote his notes
from right to left] and ADD - he couldn't focus for too long on any one
Listen to this dialogue between Ishaan and his friend Rajan.
- Hi Ishaan, you lool^ great,
- Hello Rajan, thanl<s, 1 feel great.
- Good, I'm happy to hearthat. What makes you feel so great?
- Well, its something 1 learnt about myself. 1 was reading a few
biographies. But before 1 tell you that, can 1 ask you a riddle?
- Ariddle? Okaygoahead.
-What do Edison, Einstein, Agatha Christie, Da Vinci and 1 have in
- Edison, Einstein, Da Vinci -well, all of you are males.
- No, Agatha Christie was a woman.
- Oh, 1 see - Maybe all are millionaires?
- Maybe, but I'm not a millionaire. Guess again.
- Give me a clue.
- All right, think of what people say about me.
- You mean, your failing tests even though you know all the answers.
- Yes, yes- well, 1 have dyslexia.
- Dyslexia? You mean, all these people from Edison to
Einstein were dyslexic? Wow! Maybe inside you, there is a great man!
- Yes! 1 know that now.
- Great! In what subject?
- I'm not sure yet- but 1 love photography!
- Fantastic! Then you are also going to be famous - Listen
everyone, my friend Ishaan is going to be a famous photographer!
You can touch up my photo and make my nose longer, can't you?
A little more hair on my face, and a little adjustment of my jaw.. .
- No, I'll make you look like a dancing monkey. And hey! 1 don't know if 1
want to be famous! 1 am happy as 1 am.
Ms. Alice Davis from the USA was an VIII class teacher for students with
learning difficulties. Some were dyslexic, others dysgraphic, some others had
dyscalculia and a few more had ADD- Attention Deficit Disorder. She loved
teaching, and the children in her class learnt happily and well. Many of her old
students would drop by to greet her, and share some of the good things that
were happening in their lives.
In the beginning of one school year, a shabby new boy called Johnny joined
her class. He was wearing dirty jeans that hadn't been washed for a long time, and an
old shirt that did not have a few buttons. Johnny was 1 4. He had a loud, gruff voice and
was bad-mannered. He never looked at
anyone in the eye when he spoke to them.
One day he proudly announced to every one
in the class that the Physical Education
Teacher had told him he was stinking, and
sprayed a perfume on him. The other students
did not like him. In fact, no one spoke to him.
Many of them walked the other way if they saw
him, so that they could avoid speaking to him.
shabby - dressed untidily
avoid - shun, stay away pon
neglected - did not take care of ifnored
a prefix, means not
dyslexia - difficulty with
reading and spelling. Guess the
meaning of dysfunction, dysgraphia
(graph means writing) dyscalculia
Johnny had problems with reading
and writing. He could not correctly write
the letters of the alphabet. He could not
differentiate between 'b' and'd', g and q and 'p' and 'b'. But he had a good mind, and
could reason things out very well, when he wanted to. But Ms. Davis was puzzled.
However much she tried, she was not able to interest him in learning. She decided to
read his past school history. His mother was looking after him, and there was no
mention of his father. His mother frequently moved from one place to another,
because she could not work hard at any job. She was unhappy, and therefore often
Ms. Davis was saddened by
what she read. She was
determined to give him special
care but it was not always easy,
because Johnny was so easily
Do you know?
Alphabet is a plural noun. It means a collection
of letters in any language. Other such nouns are
furniture, luggage, news, equipment. Collective
nouns do not take the plural.
Researches show that
10% of all school children in the world have
difficulty with learning to read and write.
One day, a month after he had joined, a badly battered and bruised Johnny
entered the class. His left eye was swollen and his nose was bleeding. His T shirt was
torn, and he was wiping the blood on his face with his torn sleeve, as he entered. Yet
he didn't seem to be upset or angry.
For some time, Ms. Davis had suspected that some boys were bullying
Johnny because of his dirty clothes and lack of manners. She saw that two other boys
had bruised knuckles, and guessed that they must have bullied and beaten him up.
She lashed out against the bullies, and they admitted to having tried 'to knock some
sense into him'. "Why doesn't he fight back?" one of them asked. "What? And make
you feel as bad as I do?" Johnny responded. The teacher was deeply moved. Now
she knew why she had wanted to help
Johnny. There was something about him that
was humane - something that was gentle
and strong and loving, despite the things that
- beaten up
- discoloured skin after
- one who uses is strength
to hurt weaker people
- kind, gentle
Think of some difficulties that
you might have when you
attempt to learn something.
What has helped you to learn
That evening, Ms. Davis took Johnny to a
Charity shop [where second-hand clothes are
sold cheap] and together they carefully chose
four sets of clean used clothes, which looked
almost new. She asked Johnny to use the
dressing room to try one set. When he came out
he was grinning from ear to ear. 'Don't I look
good?" he asked his teacher. "You look great. You can wear them when you come to
school tomorrow," replied Ms. Davis.
The new clothes seemed to give Johnny more confidence. His manners
improved. Whenever Ms. Davis sensed that Johnny was scared to go out of the
classroom for fear of the bullies, she went with him. She spent extra hours after
school, coaching him and helping him with
his homework. They also read together.
Reading was Johnny's passion, though he
didn't read very well. He loved stories of any
kind - fables, parables, short stories.
- a short story with a moral
- imaginative and unusual
fantasies and novels. Ms. Davis read to Johnny for half an hour everyday after
school, before he walked home. They read biographies as well. Wisely, Ms. Davis
Included stories of people who had experienced difficulties with reading and writing,
but had moved on to write their own books.
One day, he told her how much he had enjoyed the Disney film, The Lion King.
IHe also told her how much he missed not having a father to grow up with. "Do you
know, Johnny, Walt Disney was a dyslexic?" she said. "Really, teacher?" he asked.
Something seemed to open out in him that day. Seeing their teacher's attitude,
gradually his classmates Included Johnny In their activities and his grades improved.
There seemed to be hope for Johnny after all.
One day Johnny brought a note from his mother. The note said that they were
leaving town in two days and asked for hisT.C. Ms. Davis was heart-broken. Johnny's
classmates, who had begun to like him, were sad. They asked Mrs. Davis if they could
hold a farewell party for Johnny and she wondered what they would do, but the event
was warm and cordial. Mrs. Davis bought him a new set of clothes as a ^rewell gift.
When Johnny sawthem he was thrilled.
The next day just before leaving town Johnny
mshed In with his backpack full of children's books.
"Miss. Davis, these are my gifts to this class. These
have been the only things I have ever asked my mother
for," he said. Thank you, teacher," he added softly.
''I can read now." After emptying his bag, he ran to his
impatient mother. Ms. Davis looked at the books. They
were mostly children's
books that he had carefully collected from the time
he was four. He had kept them well. Ms. Davis
cherished these books because they were the only
good things Johnny had ever had in his life, and he
had gifted them to her class. Some of the children had tears in their eyes, and Mrs.
Davis realized what a beautiful thing a generous heart can be.
- valued treasured
- inspire, stimulate
Though Johnny had left the school, she knew that a part of him would always be there
to nurture her when she felt lonely. For truly,
"As one lamp lights another, nor grows less, so nobleness enkindles
Johnny too had known in his heart that for all her strict ways, Ms. Davis had
been a wonderful teacher. Truly, she was one in a million, the only star so far, in the
dark sky of his life.
LET US REMEMBER :
1 . What is dyslexia?
What problems did Johnny have with learning?
What was Johnny's past history?
Why was it not easy for Ms. Davis to help Johnny?
Who troubled Johnny? What did they do?
Why did they trouble him?
What did Ms. Davis do about it?
What did she notice?
Why did Johnny not hit them back?
1 0. What did the clothes do for Johnny?
11 . In what two ways did Ms. Davis help Johnny?
12. What was the turning point in Johnny's life?
1 3. Why did Johnny's nnother want his T.C?
14. How did Johnny's classmates send hinn off?
1 5. What did Johnny do before he left?
LET US UNDERSTAND :
Discuss, write and share. [Pair/Group work]
When his classmate asks him why he doesn't fight back, Johnny says, "What? And
make you feel as bad as I do?" What do you understand about Johnny?
Why was Johnny thrilled by Ms. Davis' gift?
Why did Ms. Davischerish Johnny's gift of books?
Ms. Davis sees the beauty of a generous heart. How do we know this?
What is the meaning of the line,
"As one lamp lights another, nor grows less, so nobleness enkindles nobleness."?
Write and share! [In dividual Work]
I Write about an unforgettable person in your life. Why is she or he
I I Write a short essay on the change in Johnny's experience. What brought
about the change? Use the grid to help you.
Fiji in, to understand how Johnny makes a difference to himself and to others!
How Johnny was
What happened to
How he responded
How Ms. Davis
How his cfassmates
responded to him
What he said/did
What the bullies did
What he said/did
Hts scliooj work
What he said/did
His sessions with
What he said/did -
Time to leave - what
What he shares
with his teacher
LET US LEARN WORDS:
A prefix, as you know, is a group of letters added to the beginning of a word to
cliange its meaning or to form a new word. Remember the prefixes you learnt eailier.
Try to form opposites by adding the prefixes given in the box to the
words given below.
II - In - un -Ir
Expand the following abbreviations :
LET US LEARN SPELLING OF PLURAL NOUNS:
English spelling is not always logical but there are some rules to help us. Most
plural words are formed by adding -s to the singular word. Here are some words from
your lesson for you to practise.
1 . Add -s and form plural words.
Here are some nouns words that end in s, sh, x or z which take an- es nnainly
because you cannot pronounce them without a vowel sound between the two's'
2. Add - es and form plural words
There are certain other words which look like plural but are singular.
Example: Pants are plural, but referto a single object.
Some objects are used in pairs - though the words 'pair of may or may not be used
Example: jeans-(a pairof) jeans, spectacles - (a pair of) spectacles
There are certain other words, mostly names of subjects which end in 's' but
are only singular. You cannot leave out the 's'.
For example: it is always Mathematics, but Arithmetic does not have an 's'!
4. Now use a dictionary and find out what these subjects are about.
Linguistics - the study of languages
Choose the most suitable synonym of the following words^ as used in
1 . distracted a) disturbed b) inattentive c) disappointed
2. pitiful a) patient b) sympathetic c) pathletic.
3. stinl< a) terrible smell b) lovely odour c) savings bank
a) A trust formed to promote wealth.
b) A good character
c) An organization collecting money for a useful cause.
d) Being very gracious and kind.
LET US TALK TOGETHER: Relay Story
The following is a short summary of the Hindi film "Taare Zamin Par" about
Ishaan, a dyslexic boy and his teacher Nikumbh. All the sentences except the first
one are jumbled. Get into groups. Read all the sentences aloud in each group,
then discuss the right order of the sentences, and number them. The group which
gets the right sequence first can then come to read the story in front of the class.
Taare Zamin Par (Stars on Earth)
1 . Ishaan was a sad student who did not know that he was dyslexic. I I
2. With his parents' and headmaster's permission, Nikumbh helped
Ishaan with his studies.
3. Ishaan was even more lonely and unhappy in the new school.
4. Ishaan's father was sorely disappointed with his poor marks and the
negative remarks from his teachers.
5. As every one teased him for the time he took to learn, Ishaan began
classes, sit in the park and dream about fascinating things.
to cut I I
6. Nikumbh admired Ishaan's aptitude for drawing. He helped Ishaan to | I
express himself, and organized an art exhibition for the school. L_l
7. But when Nikumbh the new art teacher came to Ishaan's class, he I
understood his difficulty and decided to help Ishaan. ' '
8. So his father admitted him in a residential school to discipline him.
9. His parents were thrilled when Ishaan's painting was widely
1 0. Ishaan blossomed out under Nikumbh's care and his new techniques of I I
11 . Every one realized that disability is not inability but a different way of I I
LETS US WRITE :
Now you are going to collect information about the Primary Health Centre (P.H.C.) in
your village or a hospital in your town or city, using the following table.
Our Primary Health Centre
Name of tiie doctor-in-charge
Name of tiie nurse / mid wife
Number of beds available
Does it also have a pharmacy
Does it have an ambulance
What other facilities does it have? Laboratory? ^ J^
X-ray? Scan? "" h :i^ggi^g MSWfej| jy p/yQ
What is done for cases needing specialist
Now write a paragraph using the information
above and the clues below.
Our Prinnary Health Centre
Our village/town/area has an excellent Primary Health Centre/clinic/hospital
WRITING A PARAGRAPH :
Paragraphs are made up of sentences which centre around a particular topic.
Read the following paragraphs
PARA 1- Firstly, dyslexia can go undetected throughout a child's academic
years and adulthood. Then, there are several misconceptions about dyslexic
children - that they are slow learners, emotionally disturbed, totally unfit for teaming
and so on. This is not tme. Dyslexic children have problems only in the area of
language - reading, writing, spelling and sometimes arithmetic - not in thinking. It is
estimated that in India, as in the worid, about 10% of all school going children are
dyslexic. It Is more prevalent among boys than among giris In the ratloof 4:1 .
PARA 2- A dyslexic child is an intelligent child who fails at school. He or
she would give all answers orally but fail to do a written exam. The child might lose
pace when he reads, and sometimes even lines. A child might perfomi well one day
but badly the next day. He might draw well but feel troubled because he is told that he
has bad handwriting. He or she might have spellings that are very wrong, and
numbers that are inverted, and yet be capable of cogently arguing a point. So
teachers might feel that a dyslexic child is lazy.
PARA 3 - We live in a read-write world, and therefore a child with these
confusions causes a great deal of tension and worry. Actually, however, what life
requires is not just the ability to read and write. Life requires the ability to think, to feel,
to reason and to act. No two dyslexics are alike, and no two species in nature are
totally alike. The diversity in our abilities is what makes us human. As human
beings, we all can learn, we can be helped, and we can enjoy living.
What is the topic about? It's about
Many things can be written about dyslexia, its nature, its impact, the mental pain it
can cause, and so on.
A sentence in a paragraph which summarizes the main idea is called the
Here is the topic sentence
- of the first paragraph -
Dyslexic children have problems only in the area of language.
- of the second paragraph -
Adyslexic child is an intelligent child who fails at school.
- of the third paragraph
As human beings, we all can learn, we can be helped, and we can enjoy living.
The topic sentence tells the reader what the paragraph is about. The topic
sentence can be the first sentence, or even the last sentence in the paragraph.
Sometimes the same idea is repeated for our benefit in the last or the closing
sentence in different words.
When there is a sequence of paragraphs, it would be possible to build a
sequence, using the topic sentences. Write the three sentences down.
In a good paragraph all the sentences are closely connected. There should be
no unconnected or unnecessary sentences. The writer of these paragraphs shares
three different related ideas, one after the other.
In each, she presents details in supportof the topic sentence.
The first one has been done for you.
PARA 1 - utidetected misconceptions estimated ratio
Look at example one and fill in the key supporting points of the other two
paragraphs. This exercise will also help you to write a precis.
The writer uses linkers or connecting words to create a well-knit paragraph.
Pick out the connecting words, and underline them - firstly, and, but, therefore,
actually, however, yet. Are there more?
Now look at the diagrammatic structure of this paragraph.
r^ Closing sentence. J rlopic sentence j T Supporting details J
There are many types of paragraphs, each with its own i^ind of organization. In
a story, or in an episode, there will be a logical sequence or a sequence of time. In a
descriptive paragraph, we use the sequence of space [what we describe] from left to
right or top to bottom. Depending on the type of the paragraph we use linkers such as,
once, first next, then, at last etc.
Study the following paragraph on Edison, and pick out the topic sentence, and
the supportive sentences.
Thomas Alva Edison was dyslexic but he had a scientific mind. Edison was
curious about everything. One day he saw a hen sitting over
her eggs and asked his mother why. She told him that to hatch,
the hen was giving the eggs warmth. He asked her how long
the hen would sit on the eggs. IHis mother replied "Until they
hatch." Edison thought about this and came up with an idea for
the eggs to hatch faster. He chased the hen away and sat on
the eggs himself. You can imagine what happened next. All
the eggs were broken and the hen and his mother were
furious. But this did not stop Edison from trying out new ideas.
Pick out the topic sentence and the closing sentence
Telephonic conversation [Pair work]
Study the telephonic conversation between Ishaan and his mother.
Write and enact your own conversation, with a person of your choice.
Hello Ma! How're you?
I'm fine, my dear. How're you? How's your new school?
The school is O.K. but I miss you ma. I miss your hugs and bed
Itoomissyousomuch. How's the food?
Ma, I suppose it's all right but not at all like your cooking.
How about your studies?
My new teacher Nikumbh sir is helping me.
Ok, I'm so proud of you. Bye-bye Ishaan. Take care.
Bye Ma. Pleasetakecareofmycat. Iloveyoumum
LET US HAVE FUN : GRAMMAR IN COMMUNICATION
Take two similar pictures. One of you should hide picture B and the other
picture A. Each of you should write five things that are in your picture and show it to the
other. Ask questions to each other to find out what the differences are.
Where are the sun glasses In your picture?
They are on the table belowthe poster.
Fine, Where's the television in your picture?
Strange I The television Is on the floor.
Where is the chair in your picture?
The chair is near the television I
floor, window, chair
Use as many prepositions as possible!
Now you continue with your partner. Just to make this game learning oriented,
you can write down the sentences with the preposition in your note book.
Example: A. The sunglasses are on the TV. B. The sunglasses are on the table.
NINE GOLD MEDALS
What is winning? Read this poem to find out!
The Special Olympics are an international
competition held every two years for people who
have inteliectual difFiculties. Find out in how many
ways the word 'special' in this poem can be
The athietes had come from all over the country
ItAany weeks and months of training
Aii coming down to these games
The biocl(s were ali lined up for those who would use them
The hundred-yard dash was the race to be run
There were nine resoived athletes in back of the starting line
Poised for the sound of the gun
The signai was given, the pistoi exploded
And so did the runners aii charging ahead
But the smallest among themi he stumbled and staggered
And feli to the asphait instead
The eight other runners pulled up on their heeis
The ones who had trained for so iong to compete
One by one they all turned around and went back to heip him
And brought the young boy to his feet
Then all the nine runners joined hands and continued
The hundred-yard dash now reduced to a walk
And a banner above that said "Special Olympics"
Could not have been more on the mark
That's how the race ended, with nine gold medals
They came to the finish line holding hands still
And a standing ovation and nine beaming faces
Said more than these words ever will.
2. Where does the described scene take place?
3. Who do you think were the competitors? How
do you know? Which is the event mentioned?
David Roth is a musician, song writer, playwright and a singer.
LET US UNDERSTAND:
1. When does some one get gold, silver and
- slip, losing
- sway, unsteady
- round of
- cement used to :
cover a road
4. How many competitors were there for the event?
5. What happened when the gun was fired?
6. Did all hope to win? How do you know? Why did the eight runners pull upon
7. In how nnany ways was this Olympic special? Explain.
8. Who gave the standing ovation? Why?
9. What would you have done if you were one of the eight runners?
i) Pick out the words that rhyme. Can you add one more rhyming word?
Example-run, gun, sun....
ii) In the following scatter gram, words from the poem related to games are
scattered. Try to find them, by drawing circles around them. You can go in
any direction. There are at least 20 words scattered around.
GOD, THIS IS CHARLES
Read the following letter by Charles.
Try to guess the meaning of new words - then check
with a dictionary.
Dear God I
This is Charles. I turned twelve the other day. If you noticed, I am typing
this letter. Sometimes it's hard for me to write, you know. It's this thing called
dysgraphia. They say that I also have Attention Deficit Disorder — oftentimes learning
disabilities accompany A.D.D. My IQ was tested at 140 but if you graded my cursive,
you'd feel that I don't have a mind .
I never could hold a pencil the right way. I never could write in the lines. Every
time I would try, but my hand would cramp up and the letters would come out sloppy,
the lines would be too dark, and the marker would get all over my hands. Nobody
wanted to switch papers with me to grade them, because they could nt read them.
Keith could, but he moved away.
My brain doesn't sense what my hand is doing. I can feel the pencil. But the
message doesnt get home right. I have to grip the pencil tighter so that my brain
knows that I have it in my hand.
It's much easier for me to explain things by talking than it is to write. I'm really
good at dictating but my teachers don't always let me. If I am asked to write an essay
on my holiday trip, \Vs like a punishment. But if I can dictate It, or just get up and talk
about it, I can describe the trip so well!
If I got graded on art, I'd fail for sure. There are so many things that I can picture
In my mind, but my hands just don't draw those pictures the way I see them. It's okay.
I'm not complaining. I'm really doing fine. You see, you gave me a wonderful mind and
a great sense of humour. I'm great at figuring things out, and I love to debate. We
have some great discussions in class, and thafs where I really shine.
I want to be a lawyer when I grow up, a trial lawyer in fact. I know I'd be good at
that. I would be responsible for researching the crime, examining the evidence and
truthfully presenting the case.
My parents want to help me, so they bought me a laptop to take to school. My
teacher Is the best this year! I am allowed to do a lot of my work on the computer. We
have to do a project every Friday, and guess what? She lets me use my computer for
the artworki For the first time, 1*11 be able to show everyone
some of the things I have in my mind.
God, this Is a thank-you letter, just to let you know I'm
doing fine. Life's hard sometimes, but you know what? I accept
the challenge. I have the faith to see myself through anything.
Thanks for making me. Thanks for loving me unconditionally.
Thanks for everything.
LET US REMEMBER:
1 . What learning difFiculties does Charies experience?
2. Why does he say that God would think he didn't have a mind?
3. How does dysgraphia affect Charies writing?
4 . What is he good at? What does he find difficult to do?
6 . Why does he say his teacher is the best?
7. How does the computer help Charles?
8. What do you like most about Charles?
LET US REVISE- SUFFIXES:
You learnt about prefixes. The suffix is also a syllable added to the end of a
word to form a new word .
er- ly, -ness, -ion, -less are some suffixes.
Here is a table of some common suffixes and their meaning with examples.
subject of study
makes an adverb from an
There are many more suffixes, Find out words with prefixes, suffixes or both.
Examples: dis + able + ity- disability; un + condition + al + ly
INFORMATION TRANSFER TASK:
How much power do you use?
Now - a - days we use more and more electrical appliances which consume
energy. This energy is measured in watts.
Study the following table and answer the questions given below it.
1 . Which appliance uses maximum energy?
2. Which of the above uses the least energy?
3. Of the above, which appliances are used in your home?
4. Saving energy is the need of the hour. After studying this table, the use of which
appliance will you give up?
5. How much energy does the iron, which we wrongly call iron box use? Instead
of the iron what can you use?
READ AND ENJOY:
All over the world today, people are realizing the value of diversity. In
education, it has become important to be universal in our approach to learning. The
government has set up many centres that can help all children to receive the
opportunities they deserve. In Chennai, there are schools that deal sensitively with
dyslexia. One of them is Saraswati Kendra, run by the CP Arts Centre, Chennai.
Another is Ananya, a school run by the Madras Dyslexia Association. Both schools
help children to study with other children in a 'mainstream' school.
Children from both schools have passed out and gone to Colleges and Universities to
become productive citizens.
Shall we see what children in these schools feel about learning, and what they
I dream of travel and wildlife photography. - Akshay
Its fun to study when you can study your way I - Michael
When people treat you normally, you can do anythingi - Arvind
I feel lucky to be in this school. I now know
how to help another person when they haveastruggfe. - Arjurt
Thanks to my teachers, I now know what I can dof - Renuka
I want to catch snakes and frogs, go on a trek in Ladakh, cycle long
distances, get my hands dirty in wet mud after rain.... Lakshmi
Let all schools be special schoolsl ! I - Arun
PROJECT : What is "Special Education"? Collect information on different kinds of
special education. How do you learn? What helps you to learn better.
NOTE TO THE TEACHER
The Prose Unit, 'What Is Your Address? tries to kindle in our students a sense
of awe and wonder at our universe, particularly our earth, and the magnitude of its
evolution to the present stage. Our students need to be trained to read different types
of texts. So, this text is from the genre of popular science. To know the environmental
concerns and to transform our earth, children need to be exposed to popular science
writing. They need to know how to read and retrieve essential facts from the text,
which will have transfer value in reading their science or social studies texts.
The poem 'Footprints' is thought provoking, contrasting the paths of people
with the ways of other living creatures. It challenges us humans to wonder why while
the ways of other creatures connect to form a web of life the lines drawn by people
keep others out and seem so dark.
The word games are interesting while reinforcing spelling and syllable
structure. Please remember to check the pronunciation and meaning of unfamiliar
words like Andromeda and aborigines and even mispronounced common words like
restaurant, explosion and swamps.
The grammar item Prepositions though simple, is essential, as prepositions
can make a big difference in meaning. So, enable the students to observe and fill in
the graphics before using the right preposition.
The Supplementary Reading text. The Sunbeam' is an excerpt from Dr.
Neeraja Raghavan's beautiful book for children, 'Curiouser and Curiouser' and
records a conversation between a butterfly and a sunbeam. There is also an
interesting Australian Aborigine Creation Myth, given as extra reading. Both reinforce
the theme of the wonder inherent in all creatures - even in dust particles. This section
also presents some of the creation myths prevalent in other cultures and provides
activities to functionally extend their practice in using science texts.
WHAT IS YOUR ADDRESS?
How would you write your address? We know our
names, our parents' names, the road, district and state we
live in, Vf\e country we beiong to. Today, we wouid iike to think
that we are giobai citizens. But what is our address in the _?
Let us iookat the address of this beautifui planet we live in. . .
Have you ever sat quietly on a clear night and looked up at the sky? How many
stars there are! At the beginning of time, scientists say, the universe was bom when
space was filled with an enormous explosion of energy. Today's universe contains
countless galaxies, each containing billions of stars. The sun is a medium-sized star
in one such galaxy, and we are a small green-blue planet, revolving around it. The
universe has continued to expand now for over twelve billion yearsl
Isn't it wonderful to be part of this grand
creation, with its mountains and valleys, rivers, lakes \ \ \\\
and oceans? It is out of this cosmic soup that life ^ ^ N ^
evolved, as a single cell. Some myths call this the
birth of life in the waters. Soon the rivers, lakes, and
oceans of the world were swanming with a rich
variety of life. And behold, it was good! It would be impossible to give a reason for the
emergence of land on this planet. Earth acquires its name firom the soil that gives us
food and sustains the cycle of life. This happened over feur hundred million years ago,
when the first plants appeared that could survive entirely on the land. Once they had
taken their first step, theyspread across the empty continents.
Forests had come to the earth! Over fifty to seventy million years later,
plants were followed onto the land by creatures with hard protective
shells. As they crawled onto the land they evolved into ants, beetles,
spiders, and other insects. Soon, some had evolved wings and were able to fly. Fish
living in shallow water swamps and wetlands needed to propel themselves through
the mud and vegetation. These creatures evolved
: collection of
: our galaxy
: sudden burst
: flooded with
: took care of
Then, another fifty million years later, a new family of
reptiles appeared with legs that were positioned
beneath the body to give better support for walking
on the land. These new animals, ancestors of mammals, rose to dominate a
landscape rich with plant and insect life. The mammals were then threatened by a
new kind of reptile that swept the planet - the dinosaur! This happened about 240
million years ago. But this aggressive species became extinct! IHowdld this happen?lt
is said that a massive rock slammed into the earth with devastating impact. The
explosion was so powerful that it bumt up everything within a thousand mile radius.
The only dinosaurs to survive were those that were able to fly. Mammals now rapidly
evolved into a wide variety of shapes and sizes, safely, due to the extinction of the
dinosaurs. Some tree dwelling mammals evolved fingers and thumbs for grasping
onto branches. /
Around 7 million years ago, some of these ape-like
creatures moved away from the forests and began living
on the grass covered plains. They began walking upright.
These animals were the early ancestors of humans.
Around one million years ago, they learned how to keep
fires burning and began cooking their meals. They spread
across Africa, Europe, and Asia in waves of migration that
continued for hundreds of thousands of years.
Every day the
earth is showered by
irocks from outer space..
every few thousand
years, the earth is struck
hard enough to destroy
an area the size of a
usmall city! .
As speech gradually Improved, human consciousness was slowly awakening.
People used their Imagination to help them understand their place In the world. They
sensed powerful forces at work around them in the mountains, forests, rivers, seas,
and in the sky - both kind and generous, and unpredictable and destructive. People
learned common values and gained a common understanding of the world through
their shared mythology.
Creation myths developed in oral traditions. In the
society In which It was told, it was usually regarded as
conveying profound truths.
This cosmic energy that made the earth with Its high snow-capped mountains,
beautiful deep valleys, thick and dense forests with wild and timid animals, small
chirpy birds and big vultures, the vast frozen seas with Innumerable fishes, lovely
green pastures and tall trees - remains a wonder and mystery.
Man has made the earth unllvable by denuding forests^ killing
animals and birds, and polluting air and water, resulting In climatic
changes and monsoon failures. We have made our lives cosy and comfortable,
watching cricket matches and serials on the TV, using electrical gadgets, travelling In
speedy vehicles and flying to far off places, but we send enonmous amounts of plastic
waste to landfills. We extensively use oils,
coal and gas to meet our
energy needs. These fuels
emit cari[)on dioxide which has
been accumulating In the
atmosphere. It acts like a blanket around the
planet. This Is why the temperature around the
worid Is Increasing. It Is called global warming.
-when an animal
or plant no longer
- forced to leave
- completely under
- to separate
- stop doing It.
An increase in giobal temperature causes sea-levels to rise,
dispiacing thousands of peopie. There may be floods and famine,
iowered agricuitural yieids and destruction of more species. 400
miliion peopie in our country depend directiy on natural resources for
their food, sheiter and iiveiihood. What wiii they do? The gaiaxies wiil
continue to exist. But wiii human beings go the way of the dinosaurs?
What should we do?
A carbon foot-print is a term used for emission of carbon-dioxide by an
Assess your carbon footprlnti
How do you get to schooi?
What means of transport does your famiiy use?.
Do you turn off the iights when you ieave a room?
Do you segregate your waste at home?
Do you have a compost pit at home?
Do you recycie anything?
Do you carry a bag to do your shopping?
How much junic food do you consume in a day?
Sofldrinic/ paciced chips/ other
How do you get your water?
How much garbage does your famiiy malce in a day?
Do you have the gadgets iisted on the right? How many do you have? How iong do
you use them per day?
These questions don't measure the footprint but hopefuliy give you an idea of
what you usei Here are a few suggestions i
1 . Walking and cycling: \Na\k or ride your bicycie wherever you go and whenever
you can. Waiking and cyciing reduce poiiution and gas emission, and aiso save petroi
and money In addition to keeping us physicaiiy fit. So use motor vehicies sparingly.
Call phone radiation may be
one reason why the house sparrow Is
disappearing and many bee colonies
have collapsed I Tailcing on the cell
phone can harm your ears as well!
2. Keeping the environment clean:
Segregate bio-degradabie and non-
bio-degradable waste. Whenever possible,
use kitchen waste to generate compost.
Refrain from dumping garbage, plastic into
drains, rivers and lakes.
3. Switching overto other kinds of energies:
Why do we pay for something that nature gives us free? We could switch over
to solar energy and wind power They are renewable and non-pollutant sources of
If global temperature were
to rise by a mere TO, parts
of Mumbai and Chennai
will be submerged by the
a) Solar energy: One kilo watt home solar system
will approximately generate 1600 kilowatt hours per year
in a sunny climate and prevent 300 lbs of carbon dioxide, being released into the
b) Wind energy: One of the greatest advantages of wind energy is that it is ample,
renewable, widely distributed, cheap and devoid of toxic gas emissions. The
wind will exist as long as the sun exists.
4. Planting trees: Plant and care for a tree!
LET US REMERABER:
How are galaxies fonmed?
What makes the earth look beautiful?
How were forests created on earth?
Why did dinosaurs go extinct?
How did tree-dwelling mammals evolve into early human beings?
How did early human beings see nature?
What do myths teach us?
What have human beings done to the earth?
Why is the temperature around the world increasing? Define global warming.
What are the devastating effectsof global warming on our earth?
What is a carbon footprint?
What can you do to preserve this beautiful earth?
DISCUSS &F1LL! lnanutshell....Fill in words and phrases
420 m years
350 nn years
300 m years
240 m years
65 m years
7 m years
1 m years
LET US REMEMBER - DISCUSS AND FILL I
Fill up the blanks with suitable words from the passage :
1. Human beings have made life
2. Cycling is good because
3. IVIost people depend on natural resources for
4. Waste can be divided into and
5. The alternatives to electric power are and
MATCH THE FOLLOWING
don't cut down
LET US UNDERSTAND:
Read the following sentences and answer the questions that follow them
(Refer to the prose passage to find answers).
1 . "These fuels emit carbon dioxide"
a) What are the fuels which emit carbon dioxide?
b) How can we minimize the use of fuels?
c) What alternate sources of energy could we switch to? Why?
2. "Most of the people live in coastal areas."
a) How nnany people will be affected by the impact of sea-rising,?
b) Why would so many people be affected by it?
3. "Plant and care for a tree!"
a) Why do trees play such an important role in our lives?
b) Why is it important to plant trees and care for them, today?
LET US 'SERVE' & PRESERVE! INDIVIDUAL / PAIRWORK-FILLIN
Find out the meaning of the following 'serve' words from a dictionary
1. preserve - 2. conserve -
3. reserve - 4. observe -
READING AND WRITING PAIR/GROUP WORK:
Read the following passage and answer the following questions:
There are many factors that affect our carbon footprint. One is the transportation
that we use. There is a great deal of nature that is converted into road area as a result
of the increase in our travel, and the kinds of vehicles we use. A lot of energy, land
and water are required to grow our food, and many vehicles are used to transport the
food to our plates. Most of us use LPG gas, a fossil fuel, to cook our food. So, the type
of food that we eat can also affect our carbon footprint. A lot of waste is generated by
the packaging material used to wrap what we buy, whether it is a food
item or a gadget!
The kind of energy that we use to cool our home, the amount of water our
lifestyle requires, and the waste we produce, are some areas that we can examine,
in order to become eco friendly.
There are many alternatives and choices that we have, to
make our lives eco-friendly. Some of them are very simple, but
require a great deal of care. For example, switch off the lights when
you leave a room I Close a tap properly I
LET US UNDERSTAND:
1 . List five things that you can do, to be eco friendly.
2. What makes it difficult for us to change our lifestyles?
3. Plan an electrlclty/water/waste audit. Find out how much water is used /
electricity is consumed/waste is produced in a day/week by your school/home. Give
suggestions to make things more eco friendly.
Share your answere with the classl
GRAMMAR - PREPOSITIONS:
The word 'Preposition' means that which is placed before. It is used to show
the relationship of a noun or pronoun to some other word in the sentence.
Read these sentences
1 . The ball is under the table.
2. The ball is on the table.
3. The ball is in the box.
4. The ball is near the box.
5. The dog is behind the girl
6. The house stands between two trees.
How are prepositions used?
The words 'under', 'on', 'in', 'near', 'behind', 'between' etc; show the relation of
one thing to another, in space.
at - a place can be seen as a point in space. Examine the following sentences
Write your own examples!
A nnan is standing at the bus stop.
A stranger is standing at the door.
There is a house sparrow at the window.
Write you name at the top of the page._
Sign at the end of the page.
There is a car at the end of the street.
Here are a few more prepositions that fell us where one object is, in
relation to another.
Write your examples, too!
The river is below the bus.
There are clouds above the bus..
The road is under the bus.
A man is standing by the side of the bus.
The road stretches in front of and behind the bus.
Different aspects of the usage of prepositions can be pictured as follows:
Here is another thing for you to try! The same subject and object - namely, the train
and the tunnel, are connected by a range of prepositions, and each gives us a
different relation that they have to each other.
You may try to form your own sentences in the space provided, using man and
subway instead of train and tunnei.
The train is going towards the tunnel.
The train is going into the tunnel.
The train is going through the tunnel.
The train is going along the tunnei.
The train is going away from the tunnel.
The train is going out of the tunnel.
Fiii in the bianlcs with correct prepositions:
1. Where is the bali ? The ball is the table, [on.injnto]
2. Where is the cat? The cat is the table, [above, in, under]
3. Where is the pen? The pen is the pencil, [between Jn, beside]
Fill In the bianlcs, choosing the correct prepositions given In the box
between, under, in, below, on, among
1. The girl is standing twopiiiars.
2. There is a pencil thetable.
3. She placed the dishes thetable
4. Waterflowed the bridge.
5. Thecatsat thetable.
In retation to a line - one dimension
on the road
beside the road
across the road
along the river
In relation to a surface » 2 dEmensions
upon the platform
off the platform
beyond the field
through the room
In relation to a space - 3 dimensions [length, breath, height]
inside the house
outside the house
climb up the mountain
climb down the mountain
jump over X
crawl under X
over the river
...—.-.-...— ...-.-.— ...-...— .-.-.......— .-.-....
underneath the river
In relation to a line - one dimension
At the front, at IKe back, at the side, or facing
X in front of/before Y
X . Y
X behind Y
. Y , X
X beside Y
X opposite to Y
Y [ . . ] X
On more than one side
around the park
belt round my waist
n X and Y
X walks with Y
Y walks with X
PREPOSITIONS EXPRESSING RELATIONSHIP IN TIME
1 . BEFORE = earlier than; AFTER = later than, as in-
come before or after 8 o'clock.
2. AT is used with a point of time, as in —
I'll meet you at 8 o' clock, [at sunrise, at dinner, at Deepavali]?
3. BY = not later than, as in —
We must leave by 4'o'clock, or we shall not arrive in time.
4. DURING = While that period of time or event is in progress, as in —
Nobody was allowed to go out during the examination.
5. FOR denotes time during which an action or state continues, as in —
I walk (for) two hours everyday and then I take rest (for) an hour.
6. FROM marks the beginning of a period, as in —
The bank will be open from 10 o'clock (onwards)
7. IN is used with a specific period of time, as ' in the morning'[in the evening, in
January, in (the) summer].
NOTE: We met in June last and shall meet again in January next.
Or, we may say: We met last June and shall meet next January.
8. IN marks the end of a period of time, as in —
I'll call again in five minutes. (I.e. after an interval of 5 minutes)
9. ON is used before days of the week, and dates, as in —
We will meet again (on) Friday (next).
NOTE: No preposition is used in: We met last Friday and will meet again
10. AROUND = about, as in—
I will see you around 5 o'clock.
1 1 . THROUGH (OUT) = from the beginning to the end of a period, as in-
The play went on throughout [through, all through] the night.
12. UNTIL (always replaceable by till ) marks the end of a period, as in —
We waited [did not leave] until 1 2 o' clock.
1 3. WITHIN suggests that the performance of an action is limited to a certain
period, as in —
We must be back within [in] fifteen minutes.
In preparation: Why does man make pemnanent pathways?
All birds find pathways in the sky,
All insects, on the tree,
The stars in boundless space do fly
And fishes share the sea.
The trees and winds themselves create
Their patterns in the mind
The web of life their ways relate
To those that seek to find!
On the tree and on the ground,
In the sea and in the air
Across the earth, so vast and round.
There are footprints, everywhere!
These mazy paths cannot be seen
But wind themselves about
The line each draws has never been
To keep the others out.
But great men said 'Let each man leave
A road that's straight and narrow
A path that lasts eternally -
A trail that people follow!
So humans toiled, hungered, wept
For name and fame and glory
And paths were made and tarred and kept
To write each different story.
On such an earth my footprints lie
But I cannot reason why
All human roads are dark and dry
And all the other creatures die.
LET US REMEMBER :
What do you think 'those that seek to find' means?
Whose footprints are seen everywhere?
What is the significance of a straight and narrow
'All human roads are dark and dry' - explain
Name some of the stars that
Name some of the species
Name some species that
crowd on the trees.
Name some species that
wait or creep on the ground.
Name some species that
swim in the sea.
WORD DISCOVERIES :
Select a word from the passage that contains a lot of letters. See how many smaller
words you can make using only the letters in your chosen word.
1 . The words you find must contain three or more letters.
2. Do not use proper nouns.
3. Plurals are allowed only if the letter 'S' appears in your spelling word.
4. You may use a letter only the number of times it appears in your
Example! spelling word = establishment
table is allowed but tennis is not allowed because there is only one 'n' in
the word establishment.
TryWordDiscoveriesforotherwordsonyourspelling list. Work togetherwith
a classmate to reach one hundred words for each spelling word you try.
Write a poem!
Here is an interesting poeticform:
This is a syllabicform. Syllables are the number of sounds in any word.
This is called the Diamante, because after it is written, it looks like a diamond.
Here are the number of syllables in each line, with an example.
People - 2
Are interesting - 4
Strange, good and bad, diverse - 6
Sad and happy - 4
Each line describes people and each line adheres to the number of syllables needed.
Now write your poem !
Is the rock really hard? Is the water really soft?
What moves? What stays still? These are the i
questions a young butterfly asks. In this fascinating ^ \
excerpt, the butterfly, talks to the sunbeam.
It grew darker as the butterfly flew into the thick
forest, for the tall and leafy trees, formed a canopy
above the ground, and there were only a few brightly lit spots. The fresh smell of the
leaves and the crackle of the wind as it blew through the trees made the butterfly feel
like humming a song.
Whom should it talk to here? Oh, what was that?
Abroad shaft of sunlight came slanting down through the branches of the tree.
The butterfly could see lots of tiny particles dancing inside the beam. They looked
"Hello, sunbeam! Whom are you bringing dancing down?" asked the butterfly
to the sunbeam.
"Why, I simply move along without bringing or taking anybody. What you see
are dancing dust particles. They are everywhere. It is just that you cant see them
unless there is a beam like me," the sunbeam answered in a matter-of-fact tone.
''But what makes them dance? Why can't they be still?" asked the butterfly.
The entire universe is one big dance. What looks still may not really be so. Do
you think the rocks are still just because you can't see them move?
There are dancing atoms and whirling particles inside them which never stop
moving. These dust particles are visible to the eye because they are large. But the
world is incredibly vibrant. Not all know this, because they can't see the movement."
"Does that mean that there are dancing atoms in that solid rock over there which
looks so heavy and still?" asked the butterfly, puzzled.
"Indeed, there are dancing atoms inside all matter. The entire universe is made
up of atoms and molecules which have in them constantly whirling particles. In that
sense, nothing is static. The very earth that you live on is whirling through space and
spinning on its own axis. Planets in outer space are revolving continuously around the
sun. Everything is charged with energy," said the sunbeam.
Looking at the sunbeam, that was not at all difficult forthe butterfly to imagine.
"But what makes these planets and atoms move? How come they never get tired
and stop moving?" asked the butterfly.
"The energy of the cosmos is eternal, and
can never be destroyed. It is this energy which
goes into making me so bright, and it is this
energy which, in a different form, allows atoms to
remain in motion in that rock," said the sunbeam.
"That means energy takes different forms,"
said the butterfly, thinking hard.
"Yes, energy takes many, many forms. It is light energy that allows you to see
things, and causes things to shine. It is the heat energy that warms you up. The
energy of a fast-flowing river can be used to make yet another form of energy -
electricity. But the sum total of all the energy in the universe is constant. It cannot be
made more, it cannot be made less. It has always stayed the same, and it will always
remain the same. Now do you see that everything has to be linked to everything else?
: a single sun ray
: tree cover
: ray of light
: full of energy
in step with
: always there
: to its own rhythm
For all events that happen in the universe require energy, and there is a fixed annount
of energy in the universe. Somebody has to give, for the other to take. If you fold your
wings, you use energy from the same source that I draw upon to shine!" The butterfly
was silent. It seemed that the entire universe was dancing in step with itself! Surely,
the dance of the atoms in the rock was connected in some way to the flight of the
The butterfly began to feel more and more a part of what was around it.
From Curjouser ana Curiouser\ by Dr. Neeraja Raghavan
1 . What made the butterfly feel like humming a song?
2. What did the butterfly see, in the broad shaft of light?
3. What does the sunbeam tell the butterfly about the particles?
4. What is the butterfly's question about stillness?
5. How does the sunbeam answer it?
6. What is the butterfly's next question?
7. How does the sunbeam answer it?
8. How does the sunbeam connect itself with the butterfly? What does it say?
Let us understand Discuss and share.
What does the sunbeam mean, when it says that energy taices different fomns?
Read and EnjoyI
Australian Aborigine Creation lUlytli
A creation myth or creation story is a symboiic narrative of a group of peopie,
which describes their eariiest beginnings, how the world they know began and how
they first came into it. What is the creation-myth of yourculture?
The word 'aborigine' refers to a native person of any country. The Australian
aborigines are the original inhabitants of Australia. Their race is more than 40,000
years old! Researchers have uncovered DNA evidence linking Indian tribes to
Australian Aboriginal people, supporting the theory humans arrived in Australia from
Africa via a southern coastal route through India.
There were 250 different nations in Australia, when
the white people landed there two hundred years ago. This
is one of their stories aboutthe way the world began.
There was a time when everything was still. All the
spirits of the earth were asleep - or almost all.
The great Father of All Spirits was the only
one awake. Gently he awoke the Sun Mother.
"Mother, I have work for you. Go down to
the Earth and awake the sleeping spirits. Give
them fomns.'The Sun Mother glided down to Earth,
which was bare at the time and began to walk in all
directions and everywhere she walked plants and trees and flowers and herbs of all
kinds, grew. After returning to the field where she had begun her woric the Mother
rested, well pleased with herself.
The Father of All Spirits came and saw her work, but requested her to go Into
the caves and wake other splrlts.Thls time she ventured Into the dark caves on the
mountainsides. The bright light that radiated from her awoke the spirits and after she
left insects of all kinds flew out of the caves. The Sun Mother sat down and watched
the glorious sight of her insects mingling with her flowers.
However once again the Father urged her on.The Mother ventured into a very
deep cave, spreading her light around her. Her heat melted the ice and the rivers and
streams of the world were created. Then she created fish and small snakes, lizards
and frogs. Next she awoke the spirits of the birds and animals and they burst into the
sunshine in a glorious an^y of colours. Seeing this, the Father of All Spirits was
pleased and rejoiced at the Sun Mother's wori<.She called all her creatures to her and
instructed them to enjoy the wealth of the earth and to live peacefully with one
another. Then she rose into the sky and became the sun.
The living creatures watched the Sun in awe as she crept across the sky,
towards the west. However when she finally sank beneath the horizon they were
panic-stricken, thinking she had deserted them. All night they stood frozen in their
places, thinking that the end of time had come. After what seemed to them like a
lifetime the Sun Mother peeked her head above the horizon in the East. The earth's
children learned to expect her coming and going and were no longer afraid
In the beginning was Chaos, the dark, siient abyss from which aii things
came into existence. Then came Earth, or Gaia, which produced SIcy, or
Uranus. The earth and the si<y then created the world.
In Norse mythoiogy, there was oniy a chasm, in the beginning (somewhat i ike
the Greeks' Chaos) bounded on either side by fire and ice. When fire and ice
met they combined to form the creatures of the earth.
In a Chinese creation story, Heaven and Earth were in a cosmic egg. When it
broke apart, the high and ciear fonmed Heaven, the dark formed Earth, and
P'an-ku (the first-born) who was in between, became the mountains, rivers,
soii, etc. Parasites feeding on his body, mingling with the wind, became
An ancient Mesopotamian story of creation taiks of how fresh and sait water,
mixed together, created the cycie of iife.
Think of some stories your mother or grandmother has toid you. Do you find myths
Can you build a timeline for the sun mother's activities
The Poem: My Grandmother's House
Source : Kamala Surayya's Panorama - Aselection of Poems. Revised Edn. 1986,
Oup. Indian Branch Head office 1'* Floor YMCA Library Building 1, Jai Singh Road,
Care for the aged: Savithri Vaithi's Excerpt from interview.
Prose: The Power of Langhter
Source : From the Literature Reader VI connected for communication.
Poem : You can't be that No, you can't be that by Brian pattern, orient Longman 3-6-
752 HimayatrangarHyderabad- 500029 AP. Efirstname.lastname@example.org.
Supplementary Reading : A woman of Courage
Prose : Living Amicably - Excerpts from wings of Fire.
Source : Dr.APJ. Kalam, Wings of Fire, Universities Press (India) Pvt. Ltd. 3-
6747/1/A and 754/1 Himalaya Nagar, Hyderabad. 568029 - A.P. e-mail :
Poem : 'No Men Are Foreign
Source - James Kirkup's The Golden Lyre by Michael Shane Calvert. Ever Green
Publications LH 4738/23, Ansari Road, Darya Gram / Near building New Delhi-110
002. e-mail : email@example.com.
Supplementary Reading : Sorry, Best Friend
Source ; Sorry, Best Friend by Hemangini Ranade, Tulika Publishers 13, Prithvi
Avenue 1®Tloor,Abhiramapuram, Chennai-600018. email : firstname.lastname@example.org
Prose : Rani of Thansi
Source : Sandhya Rao
Poem : To India - My Native Land
Supplementary Reading : 'After the Storm' (Adopted)
Source ; Deepa Agarmal, CBT Publication 1992.
Prose : Our winged Friends
Source : Excerpt from Zai Whitaker's Sali Ali for schools : A children's Biography.
Orient Longman. 3-6-752 Himayat Nagar, Hyderabad - 560 029. email :
Poetry : 'A tiger in the zoo' by leslie Norris
Source : Class X CBSE English Text Book
Supplementary Reading : The Ant eater and the Dassie
Source : The scaly Anteater and the Dassie, Lakshmi Mukundan (Adapted)From
Africa Tales from Tendai's Grandmother - 1997. Tara Books Pvt. Ltd. Plot No.317,
Kamarajar Nagar, 4'^ Main Road, Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai-41. Email
Prose: The unforgettable Johny - adapted
Source : Chicken Soup for the school, Canfield & Honsen P.O. Box 700, Co5, Co6
Poem : Nine Gold Medals by David Roth
Source : Chicken soup for the school, canfield & Housen.
Supplementary Reading : God, This is Charles
Supplementary Reading : the sunbeam
Source : Excerpt from curiouser and curiouser by Dr.Neeraja Raghavan, Full circle
Publishing House, 3-40, Jor Bagh Lane, New Delhi-1 1 003.
Email : email@example.com